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(A) what role does the US Constitution and Congress play in creating tax law?
As per the Article I of the US Constitution, all legislative powers are vested in a Congress of the United States, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Congress has the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. All bills for raising revenue originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills. Every bill which passes the House of Representatives and the Senate is presented to the President of the United States before it become a law.
(B) What does The Common Body of Tax Law consist of and how does a tax bill become law?
The legislative process for most tax bills is as follows: Upon its introduction, a tax bill is referred to either of two Congressional committees, the House Ways and Means Committee or the Senate Finance Committee. After hearings and committee deliberation, the bill is sent to the floor of the House or Senate, where it is deliberated on before a vote. A bill that is passed in one chamber will then be sent to the other chamber and is called an engrossed bill. If both chambers pass a bill with the same text, it can be forwarded to the President. If the House and Senate versions differ, a Conference Committee is appointed to meet and resolve the differences. Each chamber must then pass or reject the bill that emerges from the Conference Committee. If passed, this final version would then be submitted to the President.
(C) What role does the IRS play in interpreting, and providing guidance on, the tax law and what types of guidance are published by the IRS?
The mission of the Internal Revenue Service is to apply the tax law with integrity and fairness.It is to provide America's taxpayers top quality service by helping them understand and meet their tax responsibilities and by applying the tax law with integrity and fairness to all. The IRS role is to help the large majority of compliant taxpayers with the tax law, while ensuring that the minority who are unwilling to comply pay their fair share.
IN order to achieve its objectives, the IRS produces many documents, most of which are published in the weekly Internal Revenue Bulletin (IRB). The IRB has four main parts: the Code (which includes revenue rulings, final regulations, and Supreme Court tax decisions relating to the provisions of the IRC); Treaties and Tax Legislation (which includes treaties, tax legislation, and committee reports); Administrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous (which includes notices and revenue procedures); and Items of General Interest (which includes notices of proposed rulemakings and announcements). The IRB also publishes notices of IRS acquiescence or nonacquiescence of judicial decisions against the government.
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