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You can file a tax return at any age, however if you are 17 and a qualifying child or qualifying relative (dependent) of another taxpayer, you may not take your own exemption. This means you will have less money to deduct from your income to figure out tax on that income.
Depending upon the type and amount of income, an individual under 18 may even be required to file a return and possibly pay tax, even if they are a dependent of another taxpayer. They must look at the filing requirements for their age and dependency status, which can be found in most instruction booklets for the 1040 series tax forms.
If you are not required to file a return and you had federal and/or state taxes withheld from you pay, you whould still file a return because you are probably eligible for a refund of all or part of those taxes.