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It does not matter if you are receiving any social security benefit or not, as long as you are being paid for services you provide (to your employer or to your sister), your income will be subject to social security and Medicare tax. If you work for somebody, it will be taken out of your paycheck. If you are self-employed (caregiver) you will pay self-employment tax (social security and Medicare tax) when you file you tax return.
The only exception is if you work for a government employer (federal, state or local). Some employers are not required required to withhold social security and Medicare.