Smartphone Questions? Ask A Smartphone Technician for Answers
Hi there and welcome
The iPhone adds the GPS location to the photos Metadata and its one of the only ways to know it came from the iPhone.
When you create your Smart Album, use the criteria “Photo,” “is,” and “tagged with GPS”
This will show all photos with GPS data.
It's as close as you can get to determining if the photo came from the iPhone.
No sorry, it does not store the ID of the phone with the photo