Alright, sadly that's not going to be a complete back up of your device. However if you've previously had iCloud enabled it should at least be syncing some personal data.
The following procedure is a special firmware recovery mode (DFU). It will erase your Apple device, removing any passcodes, re-install the operating system, and then re-sync user data once it is done via iCloud if you have it.
Make sure you have downloaded and installed the latest version of iTunes on your computer before attempting this:
(Mac users can run System Preferences > Software Update (or “Apple Store” for OS X 10.9 users) > Check now to get the latest version for their system in most cases.)
* Open iTunes on your computer and connect the Apple iPhone directly to it
* Turn off the Apple iPhone (press the sleep/wake button on the top until the device completely shuts off).
* Hold down the sleep/wake button (on the top) AND the home button (on the front) for 10 seconds
* Release the sleep/wake button but CONTINUE to hold the home button, until...
* iTunes should pop up and tell you it’s found a device in recovery mode, click OK and continue along for the restore.
Note: When you are in DFU mode the device's screen will be completely black.
Note #2: it may ask whether you wish to restore a backup from iTunes or from iCloud. You should try signing into iCloud if you previously used it.
If it doesn’t work the 1st time, start from the beginning and try again. If iTunes *still* doesn't recognize the device, plug it into a DIFFERENT USB port and try once more.
If you receive misc errors when attempting to install/uninstall or sync after installation, try temporarily disabling any anti-virus or firewall software you may be running.