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Dr. Wilson
Dr. Wilson, Doctoral Degree
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Based on your own experience, the Lecture and Research

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Based on your own experience, the Lecture and Research Update, and on commercials, sitcoms, talk shows, etc., discuss the hierarchy of American values including wealth, physical beauty, power and fame, creativity, and independence. Then compare American
cultural values with the cultural values of three (3) of the following: Islam, Confucianism/Communism, Buddhist/Shinto, and Hindu. (A 1½ -page response is required.)
Submitted: 1 year ago.
Category: Short Essay (2 pages or less)
Expert:  LoriHR replied 1 year ago.

Good morning. I am happy to assist with this. Do you have a particular due date you are looking at? And are there any course notes that would be helpful for my response? I'm interested in particular in whether there is a "correct" hierarchy of American values, or if this is dependent on your individual perspective. Thanks very much.

Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Another way of approaching the investigation of “difference” is to think of it in terms of “comparative cultures.” In this case we are interested in comparative criminology. We want to know how difference can help us better understand why certain groups engage in criminal activity and how different societies cope with it. We must remember that criminal activity is defined by society, so not all criminal activity is universal. Different societies might view the same behavior as either criminal or legal, or different circumstances for the same behavior may determine its legality. For instance, in the United States capital punishment is considered a legal consequence only for defendants committing first-degree or felony murder. In China, however, a man tried for publishing pornographic books was sentenced to death, and this penalty has been used to deter people from actions interfering with the economic development of that country (Schmalleger, F., 2003, p. 667). In Muslim cultures the Hudud crime of adultery is punishable by stoning, while in the United States such behavior is not criminalized at all, relegating the remedies to the civil courts instead.Before we explore different cultural views on criminality, we must consider the meaning of terms associated with difference. At the most basic level, we need to understand the meaning of cultures, values, religious beliefs, cultural lag, societies, regional differences, rural and urban distinctions, neighborhoods, subcultures, and vanishing cultures. We need to learn about other cultures and use this comparative analysis not only to gain a fuller understanding of criminology, but also to evaluate our traditions and institutions in light of theirs. The discussion below is meant to provide an introduction to these concepts.Cultures are groups of people who share three interacting elements: technology, social organization, and values. In the modern world, the most distinguishing elements of cultures are their values because values impact both technology and social organization. Values represent the beliefs of the primary group of people illustrated by such cultural labels as Islam, Hindu, and so forth. Technology refers to the use of tools and the types of organization for using those tools, as in science, manufacturing, construction, and other necessary activities. The social structure is the way in which social groups are organized (e.g., monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, nuclear family, extended family, commune, or other alternatives) and the way in which other organizations, such as schools, politics, and churches, relate to the social organization.The tie to criminal justice here is that the laws of a society are always based on the values of the dominant culture, and the values are based on the religious beliefs of the dominant groups in the culture. Denial that religious customs are important leads to disaster in cultural interactions. Our culture in the U.S. is Western European/Judeo-Christian, but we also allow freedom of religion. That does not mean the main value system is diluted, only that it tolerates differences. However, other world cultures may see this as a sign of cultural weakness and disintegration.Toleration of difference relates to a problem we call cultural lag, which was first identified by William Ogburn (Kraus, J.F., 2002, ¶ 1). At times our culture’s technology is moving so fast that the social structure and value components cannot seem to keep up. This creates psychic pressure on many participants in the culture because the possibility of alienation arises. For example, we do not yet know how to legally regulate cloning or genetic manipulation; it terrifies some, while others see it as scientific and cultural advancement. Technology moves on, yet it may take several hundred years for the law as a reflection of social management to catch up.A similar problem existed with the first skyjackings. There was no law covering the new technology and the antisocial behaviors involved with commercial flight. So we first used what we were familiar with, the traditional law of the sea. It took almost thirty years to formulate a fairly decent law for air piracy, but even today not all nations are in agreement. Another modern example is in the area of computer crime. Technology has outstripped society’s ability to address inappropriate electronic interactions without simultaneously infringing on Constitutional free speech and “due process.” As difficult as these issues are for our own culture to address, consider how difficult the secularization pressure is for Islamic countries that view the western culture streaming in through the media as a threat to their social and religious purity.Western European/Judeo-Christian culture comprises most of Europe, the U.S., and the Western Hemisphere (and all those places colonized by the nations in the Western Hemisphere). Many different societies can exist as part o
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Western European/Judeo-Christian culture comprises most of Europe, the U.S., and the Western Hemisphere (and all those places colonized by the nations in the Western Hemisphere). Many different societies can exist as part of the same world culture. Societies are geographic divisions within cultures usually with political or nation-state boundaries, for example, the U.S., Mexico, Germany, Belgium. Spain, Canada, Chile, South Africa, and other countries that were colonized by Western European/Judeo-Christian societies are part of this mega-culture even though they have political and linguistic differences.Subcultures are groups within a society that maintain alternative value systems from the main society. The concept of subculture is both useful and controversial. For example, in the U.S. some writers have tried to discuss a subculture of poverty. Other commentators have described subcultures of violence, homosexuality, or alternative lifestyles. The problem with these as with other subcultures is that most of the participants also espouse the values of the main culture, thus leading double lives and occasionally representing opposing points of view.A variation on the subcultural theme is the consideration of regional differences in attitudes and values existing within a society, as exemplified by the variation in attitudes and values between the North and the South in the U.S. Within our states are cultural differences between urban and rural areas, although the rural may be disappearing quickly due to rapid transportation, television, and the Internet, just as the world is shrinking for some of the same reasons. Neighborhoods are geographic areas within cities that seem to be distinct in values, religion, ethnicity, race, or some other defining characteristic. The history of the term “neighborhood” probably derives from neighbors choosing to relate to certain other neighbors to create a personalized environment within the metropolis.We all want to comprehend what is happening in our shrinking world, and knowing the cultures and their characteristic values helps us accomplish this task. According to many sociologists, there are five major world cultures, and we know there are also several vanishing cultures and several more (depending on points of view) trying to re-emerge. The main five cultures are Western European/Judeo-Christian (not discussed in this lesson), Islam, Buddhist/Shinto, Confucian/Communist, and Hindu. The vanishing cultures, groups of indigenous peoples, include Eskimo, Amazon Indian, Aborigine, Ainu of Japan, and many island cultures in the Pacific basin. Two that are attempting to revitalize include American Indian and African.For our purposes we will examine what is considered deviant or illegal behavior in the main cultures. We will begin to see that we cannot always judge actions of others using our own system of values, beliefs, or religious traditions. We will discuss briefly some of the religious principles and/or values of the cultures in order to determine what it means to be deviant or criminal in their cultures. In your reading assignment, you will find more in-depth presentations of the cultures with a greater emphasis on values, beliefs, and religious traditions.IslamIslamic culture and law have been the focal points of discussion in our country since the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center and Pentagon terrorist attacks and the ensuing U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. While Islamic law is embedded in the teachings of Islam, American students of criminal justice should recognize that the 9/11 attacks have no intrinsic relationship with this law, nor is the jihad (holy war) rhetoric of Muslim fundamentalists representative of mainstream Islamic belief. The four sources of Islamic law include the interpretations of the Koran (Holy Book of Islam), teachings of the Prophet Mohammed, consensus of the clergy on matters not addressed by the Koran or Mohammed, and logical reason applied when a situation is not addressed by the first three sources. In addition, there are four characteristics of justice under Islamic philosophy and religion:It is a sacred duty to be morally responsible and merciful toward everyone,
A mutual respect should exist between two people and throughout society,
Every member of the society is held accountable for the welfare of all and becomes a keeper of everyone else, and
Anyone who violates God’s commands should be given strict punishments (Souryal, S. et al., 1994, pp. 249-265).
Because Islam recognizes a tie between religion and acceptable social behavior, the third and fourth aspects above form the basis of criminal justice practice in many Middle Eastern countries. Islamic law is predominant in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Ethiopia, Gambia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Senegal, Tunisia, Tajikis
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
IslamIslamic culture and law have been the focal points of discussion in our country since the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center and Pentagon terrorist attacks and the ensuing U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. While Islamic law is embedded in the teachings of Islam, American students of criminal justice should recognize that the 9/11 attacks have no intrinsic relationship with this law, nor is the jihad (holy war) rhetoric of Muslim fundamentalists representative of mainstream Islamic belief. The four sources of Islamic law include the interpretations of the Koran (Holy Book of Islam), teachings of the Prophet Mohammed, consensus of the clergy on matters not addressed by the Koran or Mohammed, and logical reason applied when a situation is not addressed by the first three sources. In addition, there are four characteristics of justice under Islamic philosophy and religion:It is a sacred duty to be morally responsible and merciful toward everyone,
A mutual respect should exist between two people and throughout society,
Every member of the society is held accountable for the welfare of all and becomes a keeper of everyone else, and
Anyone who violates God’s commands should be given strict punishments (Souryal, S. et al., 1994, pp. 249-265).
Because Islam recognizes a tie between religion and acceptable social behavior, the third and fourth aspects above form the basis of criminal justice practice in many Middle Eastern countries. Islamic law is predominant in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Ethiopia, Gambia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Senegal, Tunisia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkey. With the exception of Turkey, which practices a separation of church and state, each of the other theocracies have laws against “Hudud crimes,” or violations of the natural law as interpreted by Arab culture. They are characterized as crimes against God and include offenses such as making war upon Allah and His messengers, theft, adultery or fornication, and “corruption on earth.” The last offense is not well understood by western culture, but includes activities such as embezzlement, revolt against lawful authority, fraud, and “weakening the society of God” (Schmalleger, 2003, p. 671).In all their activities, practicing Muslims do not lose sight of the fact that they are part of the community. The Prophet Mohammed is said to have stated that to belong to the community, one must love the community. This belief forbids the man from entering into any pact with evildoers (Cragg & Speight, 1980, p. 227). In particular, the religious aspect of Islamic law includes strict punishment of moral failure for offenses considered in western cultures to be victimless crimes. Fornication, for example, carries a penalty of up to 100 lashes; drinking alcohol may result in the offender’s receiving up to 80 lashes; and a thief may have his/her hands and feet cut off on alternate sides (Souryal, 1994, pp. 249-265).Another useful concept for the deviant in Islam is that he or she is a prisoner of the senses, separated by a barrier of human frailty from becoming one with the divine. In Islam, even though all persons have the touch of the divine, some of them have forgotten who they are and would, in our Christian vernacular, be considered "lost souls." According to Souryal (1994), the severe punishments handed out for Hudud crimes serve three functions: the fulfillment of worship, the purification of society, and the redemption of the individual. However, of the three, the interests of the individual are usually the least valuable and may be sacrificed for the wholesomeness and integrity of the society. Another way of putting it is that criminals are those who do not fulfill obligations. They have no legitimate rights, and any claims of freedom that they make on the environment or the society are illegitimate and a usurpation of what does not belong to them (Nasr, 1981).The treatment of women as second-class citizens, while having little basis in the Koran, is another characteristic of Islamic cultures today. For example, it takes two virtuous women to equal the testimony of one man in an Islamic legal proceeding. While many in the West criticize Islamic moral crimes, unequal treatment, and harsh punishments as being barbaric, Muslim officials defend their system by pointing to low crime rates in their countries, contrasted with the moral degradation among western nations (Schmalleger, 2003, p. 672). However, secular and nationalistic ideology, alternative educational philosophies, mass global communications, and increasing interaction with westerners continue to exert pressure on Islamic cultures to equalize the rights of women and standardize law enforcement.Confucian/CommunistConfucian/Communist culture is primarily found in the country of China. Confucianism, Taoism, as well as Buddhism h
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Confucian/CommunistConfucian/Communist culture is primarily found in the country of China. Confucianism, Taoism, as well as Buddhism have had a large influence on the way the Chinese look at and deal with crime and criminals. The importance of family and kin among Chinese is paramount. This is demonstrated by the custom of allowing family kinship icons (warriors) to be placed with the Buddha images in certain shrines. Family is where moral education is provided, affection for the group is reinforced, and loyalty and pride are engendered. China's traditional moral standards have dictated loyalty and filial devotion, then kindness and love, then faithfulness and justice, then harmony and peace.In China the deviant is the person who has failed to perform duty to the state, the family, and/or the neighborhood. People fail because they have not learned correctly or well enough how to behave appropriately. This can be remedied by social pressure, and the community can influence behavior by gossip or ostracism. Confession comes first, then reeducation. Confucius taught that man is by nature good, and Chinese authorities attempt to build opportunities into their criminal justice system to reform offenders. According to one Western observer who visited prisons, the inmates were expected to conform not for personal redemption, but to benefit their families, villages, and country. Crime is not so much a reflection of an individual’s failure, but instead reflects poorly on the family, community, and larger community (Sanders & McAninch, 1994, p. 87).Presently China continues to evidence a dynamic and evolving mix of ancient religion, Communist influence, and the newer Western legal concepts. In particular, Chinese society seems to be reacting to the Maoist “cultural revolution” policies of the 1970s and is having to deal with everything from the wholesale violation of intellectual property rights by computer bootleggers to organized crime in the form of “black societies” (Schmalleger, 2003, p. 665). However, “mediation committees” are still found throughout the country to divert minor offenders from the more formal mechanisms of justice. Paradoxically, for a country that values reeducation and reformation of offenders, Amnesty International has reported that China executes more people each year than all of the rest of the world. Typical of totalitarian regimes, China periodically engages in “strike hard” campaigns in response to crime waves, ignoring legal “due process” procedures in the process (Schmalleger, 2003, p. 668).
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Buddhist/ShintoJapan is an island nation and one of the most densely populated metropolitan areas in the world. It is a land of extreme contrasts. For example, from ancient times to the present, mountain villages often stand empty as the population migrates into larger cities (Burfeind & Westermann, 1998, p. 2). It is the most representative society of the Buddhist/Shinto culture.Behavior in these crowded and close conditions is regulated by Katas, or rules that emphasize the form and order of each process of life. Daily activities such as eating, playing baseball, or how to treat fellow citizens as well as foreigners are guided by these rules. The supreme guilt is having hurt someone else by failing to behave as that person expected. People in this culture fail because of the individual stress of their roles, the failure of loyalty, the failure of responsibility, and the lack of self-discipline. Shinn, who guides U.S. government personnel in dealing with the Japanese, says, "Japan had an essentially homogeneous society, in which common social values and standards prevailed" (Shinn, Young, & Cook, 1983, p. 390; Gannon, 1994, p. 255).The majority of crimes in Japan seem to be committed by juveniles. Given that there are high expectations for all children, there is fierce competition early on in life. One is either the best student or a failure. If children know early that they won't be on top, then they lower their expectations, but if they are middle class and stopped from being top students, then they show rebellion and lash out in frustration. There is a high suicide rate among them. However, suicide is not the only solution to the lack of access to top positions. Some juveniles become "school dropouts" and form gangs. Here they can conform to their non-conformist groups. This way they can avoid doing a crime on their own, for to do a crime without belonging to a group would bring shame and ridicule (Burfeind & Westermann, 1998, p. 40).The causation of crime among adults can be explained by examining the "hajji no bunka" (shame culture) that exists in Japan. Until recently, this method was used to instill fear, pride, and shame. Japanese moral theory depended almost entirely on the surrounding people and circumstances. Individuals who behaved immorally or "criminally" were explained by the fact that "their morality of shame simply failed to apply" (Becker, 1988, p. 427). Some Japanese sociologists and psychologists also believe that mentally disturbed people are more likely to commit criminal acts and that criminals are likely to be in some sense mentally disturbed (Becker, 1988, p. 427).Another possible explanation of factors contributing to crime involves how Japan treats convicted offenders. Rather than adopting the Western philosophy of incapacitation and retribution, the Japanese firmly believe in rehabilitation. In Japan only about 4% of convicted criminals ever go to jail, the rest are let off with fines or suspended sentences and placed under the guidance of a nationwide network of volunteer parole officers.
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
HinduIf you study about the Hindu culture, you really are studying the history of India. This is an ancient culture rather than an organized religion, loosely based on holy scriptures, moral codes, and concepts of rebirth and “just desserts.” The Indian culture has given the world the decimal system, the mathematical zero and “pi” constructs, and many other valuable contributions. As a culture and way of life, Hindus are generally peaceful, assimilating other cultural and religious beliefs as it suits them (Viswanathan, 1999, ¶ 4).In terms of criminal behavior, Hindus emphasize the negative impact of a person’s desires and attractions. It is not actually the person who is committing the crime, but it is the emotions of that person. Obviously, because a person's character is in his mind rather than in his actions, a person may be criminal in what he thinks rather than in what his actions show. Hinduism prescribes that the pursuit of goals whose realization is beyond our existence in the materialistic world should be made an organic part of our activities while we are still living. Each and every act we do on earth (Karma) is accounted for by the celestial accountant (chitragupta) and has implications on our next life according to the theory of re-birth (Punarjanma) or reincarnation (Birodkar, n.d., ¶ 3).The great crimes are the ones done not out of ignorance, but by persons who should "know better" or have more advanced knowledge. As part of the ethical discipline noted above, the perfection of behavior remains the goal of the religious quest. Persons who are unaware of their crimes (ignorant) can be considered irresponsible, but the person who is knowledgeable and commits crimes anyway must be punished. The reward for proper conduct is an upgrade in one’s status upon reincarnation, so the “salvation-by-works” principle applies to this culture.You will learn more about each culture in your reading assignments. For now, you have four examples of world cultures that treat criminality or deviancy differently from that of our own Judeo-Christian culture. All have a common understanding that criminality or deviance is the violation of a value; however, the values are different in each culture. As was seen with Japan, the reactions to the violations can also be different. As we study differences, we must be aware of how our own culture is similar to and different from that of other cultures, whether the culture is considered to be a dominant culture or a subculture. Your readings will expose you to more variation and similarities among a wider range of cultures
Expert:  LoriHR replied 1 year ago.
Thank you so much for the extra information--perfection. Due date/time? I am packing and cleaning for a brief trip but I can begin work on this later tonight.
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Ok thanks......it must be in APA format......one 1/2 pages and reference s in APA format
Expert:  LoriHR replied 1 year ago.
APA is no difficulty. :)I see the parenthetical citations at the end of various paragraphs--is this the appropriate citation information, or does all of this actually come from the same source, and the source is citing others?
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Same source citing other a
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
Posted by JustAnswer at customer's request) Hello. I would like to request the following Expert Service(s) from you: Live Phone Call. Let me know if you need more information, or send me the service offer(s) so we can proceed.
Expert:  LoriHR replied 1 year ago.
Absolutely...let me offer that service to you.
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No thks
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I need references as well. How long will this paper take
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
when should I expect the answer for this question?
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
I had no ideal. I will be sure to rate you so that you get paid............
Expert:  Dr. Wilson replied 1 year ago.
OK the prior expert opted out for some reason. So I might be able to help you. By when do you need the answer posted?
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
I need it by Thurs.
Expert:  Dr. Wilson replied 1 year ago.
OK I will get started and let you know if I need any more info. No need to reply.
Expert:  Dr. Wilson replied 1 year ago.
Hi. Your paper is finished but it looks like JA timed the question out. Do you still want me to post the answer? Let me know. Thanks. *****
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
please post in PDF until the 30th
Customer: replied 1 year ago.
PLEASE POST MY ANSWER AGAIN
Expert:  Dr. Wilson replied 1 year ago.

Hi. OK. Goto this link and download it, then you can put it into pdf. If you need me to put it in pdf let me know. Thanks.

http://wikisend.com/download/329260/justanswer-American Values.doc

Customer: replied 1 year ago.
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