I need to know if the assignment can be taken care off, I have no idea why Brittany would ask me for some business and not respond to the assignment, If she is not available she should say so.
I tried to download the 2 chapters To copy and paste to send to you, because it was so large It could not be done, any suggestion?( here is the topic for Chapter 2
Cognitive and Logistic Development) ( Chapter 3,Topic is Personal and Social Development)
It will not let me copy bits and pieces at all.
I am so sorry I had a wedding Today I just so your Post, I cannot open up the file to let you know if this it the assignment, I a need to see it tell me how.
How do I open up the the cite?
HI Gwen, I do not know whayt is wrong but it will not open even when I copy it an paste it, what do I do next
This should work. Let me know if the topics in the lecture are the same.
Hi that is for Modula 1, I will post the reading foe Modula 2 reading This is some of it, this rest will follower.
a) Ormrod, chaps. 2 and 3
2) eLibrary Resources:
a) Bruer, J. T. (1998, November). Brain science, brain fiction. Educational Leadership, 56(3), 14-18. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=1267618&site=ehost-live&scope=site
b) Genesee, F., & Cloud, N. (1998, March). Multilingualism is basic. Educational Leadership, 55(6), 62. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=412356&site=ehost-live&scope=site
c) Porter, R. P. (1999, December / 2000, January). The benefits of English immersion. Educational Leadership, 57(4), 52-6. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=3270327&site=ehost-live&scope=site
d) Thompson, S. (1995, May). The community as classroom. Educational Leadership, 52(8), 17. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9505301221&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Electronic Resources: None
Yes, this is for Modula 2.
3) Web Sites: None
4) Lectures/GCU Resources:
a) Module 2 Lecture
5) Other: None
6) Optional: None
a) Weekly Journal
i) Each week, students are required to submit a reflection in an ongoing dialogue journal with the instructor of which portions may be used later in the e-Portfolio. The guidelines below should assist in this process.
ii) Your entry should be a minimum of 150-200 words.
iii) Answer the following questions:
(1) What are the key points in the Ormrod text reading?
(2) Based upon your experience in education, how might you apply this content to a classroom and instruction?
iv) APA format is not required, but solid writing skill in APA style and a title page are expected.
v) Submit the assignment to the instructor in ANGEL by the end of Module 2.
Ormrod, chaps. 2 and 3
Chapter 2 and 3
Educational Psychology: Developing Learners Seventh Edition.
Human beings are extremely adaptable creatures with the ability to adjust to and thrive in a wide variety of physical, social, and cultural environments. Much of this comes from the ability to learn. For humans, learning begins at birth, perhaps even before birth (DeCasper & Spence, 1986). This next section focuses upon the cognitive processes involved in learning and in such complex thinking skills as problem solving and creativity
In pursuit of a definition, learning has meant many things to many people. An early definition is the one that is most used and identified: Psychologists define learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Over the last few years, there has been an emergence of this definition: learning is a relatively permanent change in mental representations or associations due to experience. These definitions are similar in two ways. They both describe learning as a relatively permanent change, and secondly, they address change as due to experience of some sort. They are also different in that they describe the change by behavior in one and change in mental representations in the other.
Many learning theories focus largely on how people's behaviors change over time and on how environmental conditions are catalysts for such changes. Other theories focus more on internal mental processes, such as thinking, than on observable behaviors.
In order to understand this, consider briefly both approaches. With learning as a change in behavior, it is impossible to actually see one's thought process which led to the result. The behavior, however, is observable. When psychologists began this process in the 1800s, they often asked people to look inside their own minds and describe what they were thinking. This process became know as introspection. As time went by, another trend surfaced by looking at things which can be observed, stimulus (environmental events) and responses (behaviors). This is the study of behaviorism.
During the first half of the 20th century, many followers adhered to the behaviorist approach. As time went by, however, it did not paint a clear picture of the learning process. In the 1940s, people began to notice that it appeared that learning was taking place just by noticing how other people do something (Miller & Dollard, 1941). This idea evolved into modeling or social learning theory. Since then, theorists have added cognitive processes into the mix, which gave way to social cognitive theory. The addition of cognition into the mix added some features of Piaget and Vygotsky into its genesis. Theories now incorporate such mental activities as memory, attention, concept learning, problem solving, and reasoning (Neisser, 1967). In these approaches, educators can make good inferences into the internal workings that underlie those observed responses.
Regardless of the theoretical perspective one takes to understand learning, it leads to reason that it has some biological basis. As described earlier, learning increases the size and number of interconnections (synapses) between the brain cells (neurons). Overall, the research supports that the brain is adaptable and learning continues throughout the lifespan.
The following basic assumptions can be made from research concerning how people learn:
Cognitive processes influence the nature of what is learned.
People are selective about what they process and learn.
Meaning is constructed by the learner and then encoded into memory.
The concept of the information processing model can shed some light on this learning process. It states that all information comes in via one's senses and then passes through an encoding step where it is sent to short-term memory, rehearsed, and then passed on into long-term memory. This explains why educators spend so much time repeating school activities because students have to establish a memory engram to make a concept permanent and automatic. This approach, in layman's terms, is practice, and it is most often found in homework.
Learning is not a simple process of absorbing information from the environment. A perspective known as social constructivism has emerged, which attempts to focus on collective efforts to impose meaning in the environment. Schools are an excellent median for this process to take place. This is where students and teachers actively work together to make better sense of information and events in the school setting. Research by Harris & Alexander (1998) support that these interactions with individuals and groups enhance learning and the meaning of the subject matter.
In order for learning to take place, one must utilize processes that allow for knowledge organization. These are known as concepts, schemas and scripts, and theories. These impact children's ability to make sense of personal experiences, classroom subject matter, and other new information. In this process there is always the possibility of incorrect construction of the environment. As people develop physically and cognitively, they develop common misconceptions due many times to how society and culture foster them. Regardless of how these misconceptions occur, they can wreak havoc on new learning (Kuhn, 2001). Thanks to a process of meaningful learning and elaboration students will usually change or distort new information to fit their existing beliefs referred to as paradigms. As a result, they can spend a great deal of time learning the wrong thing. A teacher's job is twofold: (a) to help students construct accurate information about the world around them and (b) to assist with helping them discard any erroneous beliefs they have previously acquired.
In this process, researcher K. R. Harris & P. A. Alexander (1998) suggest the following:
Providing opportunities for experimentation.
Presenting the ideas of others.
Emphasizing conceptual understanding.
Using authentic activities,.
Creating a community of learners.
As teachers help students construct a meaningful understanding of the world around them, they can increase their multicultural awareness by promoting multiple constructions of the same situation. For example, discussion about the Civil War can occur from two perspectives, the North and the South. The key is to suggest that there may be several possible interpretations of any single event.
DeCasper, A. J., & Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 133-150.
Harris, K. R., & Alexander, P. A. (1998). Integrated, constructivist education: Challenge and reality. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 115-127
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. C. (1941). Social learning and imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Learning and MotivationIntroduction
Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. C. (1941). Social learning and imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
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