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The answer is a little "mixed."
No, the HOA cannot fine an owner unless the declarations, CC&Rs, or bylaws specifically state that they would be fined. See Tex. Prop. Code Ch. 209.
However, the HOA can seek legal remedy such as enforcement, injunction, etc. In doing so, the HOA can ask the Court to award it legaland attorney fees in seeking the judgment under Tex. Civ. Prac. & Rem. Code Chapter 38. The Court may agree.
In addition, if the HOA argues successfully that the action was intentional, fraudulent and malicious, it can request exemplary damages under Tex. Civ. Prac. & Rem. Code Chapter 41.
So while no specific fines are allowed unless under declarations, CC&Rs, or bylaws, the HOA can still get a monetary judgment per above.
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