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I am very sorry you are dealing with this situation. While there are certain risks inherent living on a golf course, having a sprinkler head destroy property and cause damage is not one of them. First, the golf course should be notified that its sprinkler head is hitting your house and deck and has cause damage. While the extent of the damage is unknown at this point (that is the cost to repair) demand that the sprinkler head be adjusted to avoid hitting your house.
You may wish to discuss the damage with your insurance company as well. If the insurance will cover the claim they will then go after the golf course for reimbursement of the cost to repair and your deductible.
If insurance will not cover the claim, to hold the golf course liable you will need to get bids to repair the damage and either have the damage fixed then sue the golf course or sue the golf course first based on estimated bids. The law suit would be based on a negligence claim (but for the golf course sprinklers, your property would not be damaged).
Hopefully, when you give notice to the golf course about the sprinkler head they will be reasonable and admit fault and pay for the damage caused by the course's sprinkler. If not, then contact your homeowner's insurance and if the damage is not covered, then you have a valid basis for a lawsuit against the golf course.
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