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This is not a statutory law. Whether or not property is considered common area depends on the deeds and founding documents of the property itself and the HOA. You can request these documents from the HOA and they will have to provide a copy and one can ascertain from this whether or not the balconies are considered common areas.
However, counter to presumption, they often ARE common areas. The HOA often has balconies as common areas because (a) safety may be an issue for maintenance and if so, the HOA wants to maintain it, (b) for reasons of keeping the properties nice in general by maintenance, and (c) specifically for purpose of enforcing bylaws that may limit smoking or noise on the balcony.
Ergo, if the balcony is common area, then the HOA may indeed enforce its no-smoking ban on it, because the HOA controls common areas.
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