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I am sorry to hear about this situation. Without getting into the issue of whether or not withholding full payment is correct due to lack of notice, let us address your main question of whether the accumulating back debt on Association dues would be a problem for a sale of the property.
In Florida, COAs in this situation are governed by by Sec. 718.116, Florida Statutes, and HOAs in this situation are governed by Sec.(###) ###-#### ***** these statutes, both the seller and buyer are "jointly and severally" liable for unpaid assessments.
This means that the Association can pursue either party, or both. And if they pursue the buyer, they can then sue you for indemnification claiming that you never told them about the past due balance.
So yes, this may be an issue. The only way to avoid this is to have the buyer agree in writing to confirm that they are aware of the past due balance and know of it, and will not seek indemnification against the seller if they are pursued for it.
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