Representations by a Lawyer
 An assertion purported to be made by the lawyer, as in an affidavit by the lawyer or in a statement in open court, may properly be made only when the lawyer knows the assertion is true or believes it to be true on the basis of a reasonably diligent inquiry. There may be circumstances where failure to make a disclosure is the equivalent of an affirmative misrepresentation. If the lawyer comes to know that a statement of material fact or law that the lawyer previously made to the tribunal is false, the lawyer has a duty to correct the statement, unless correction would require a disclosure of information that is prohibited by Rule 1.6. This provision in paragraph (a)(1) differs from ABA Model Rule 3.3(a)(1), which requires a lawyer to disclose information otherwise protected by Rule 1.6 if necessary to correct the lawyer’s false statement. If Rule 1.6 permits a lawyer to disclose a client confidence or secret, D.C. Rule 3.3(a)(1) requires the lawyer to disclose that information to the extent reasonably necessary to correct a false statement of material fact or law. Nothing in D.C. Rule 3.3(a)(1) limits any disclosure duty under Rule 4.1(b) when substantive law requires a lawyer to disclose client information to avoid being deemed to have assisted the client’s crime or fraud. The obligation prescribed in Rule 1.2(e) not to counsel a client to commit or assist the client in committing a fraud applies in litigation but is subject to Rule 3.3(b) and (d). Regarding compliance with Rule 1.2(e), see the Comment to that Rule. See also Rule 8.4.
Misleading Legal Argument
 Legal argument based on a knowingly false representation of law constitutes dishonesty toward the tribunal. A lawyer is not required to make a disinterested exposition of the law, but must recognize the existence of pertinent legal authorities. Furthermore, as stated in subparagraph (a)(3), an advocate has a duty to disclose directly adverse authority in the controlling jurisdiction that has not been disclosed by the opposing party and that is dispositive of a question at issue. The underlying concept is that legal argument is a discussion seeking to determine the legal premises properly applicable to the case.
 When evidence that a lawyer knows to be false is provided by a person who is not the client, the lawyer must refuse to offer it regardless of the client’s wishes. This duty is premised on the lawyer’s obligation as an officer of the court to prevent the trier of fact from being misled by false evidence. A lawyer does not violate this rule if the lawyer offers the evidence for the purpose of establishing its falsity.
 When false evidence is offered by the client, however, a conflict may arise between the lawyer’s duty to keep the client’s revelations confidential and the duty of candor to the court. Upon ascertaining that material evidence is false, the lawyer should seek to persuade the client that the evidence should not be offered or, if it has been offered, that its false character should immediately be disclosed. Regardless of the client’s wishes, however, a lawyer may not offer evidence of a client if the evidence is known by the lawyer to be false, except to the extent permitted by paragraph (b) where the client is a defendant in a criminal case. The lawyer is obligated not only to refuse to offer false evidence under subparagraph (a)(4) but also to take reasonable remedial measures under paragraph (d) if the false evidence has been offered.
 The prohibition against offering false evidence applies only if the lawyer knows that the evidence is false. A lawyer’s knowledge that evidence is false can be inferred from the circumstances. See Rule 1.0(f). Thus, although a lawyer should resolve doubts about the veracity of testimony or other evidence in favor of the client, the lawyer cannot ignore an obvious falsehood.
 Although paragraph (a)(4) prohibits a lawyer from offering evidence only if the lawyer knows it to be false, it also permits the lawyer to refuse to offer testimony or other proof that the lawyer reasonably believes is false. Offering such proof may reflect adversely on the lawyer’s ability to discriminate in the quality of evidence and thus impair the lawyer’s effectiveness as an advocate. Because of the special protections historically provided criminal defendants, however, this rule does not permit a lawyer to refuse to offer the testimony of such a client where the lawyer reasonably believes but does not know that the testimony will be false. Unless the lawyer knows the testimony will be false, the lawyer must honor the client’s decision to testify.
 Paragraph (d) provides that if a lawyer learns that a fraud has been perpetrated on the tribunal, the lawyer must take reasonable remedial measures. If the lawyer’s client is implicated in the fraud, the lawyer should ordinarily first call upon the client to rectify the fraud. If the client is unwilling to do so, the lawyer should consider other remedial measures. The lawyer may not, however, disclose information otherwise protected by Rule 1.6, unless the client has used the lawyer’s services to further a crime or fraud and disclosure is permitted by Rule 1.6(d). In other cases, the lawyer may learn of the client’s intention to present false evidence before the client has had a chance to do so. In this situation, paragraphs (a)(4) and (b) forbid the lawyer to present the false evidence, except in rare instances where the witness is the accused in a criminal case, the lawyer is unsuccessful in dissuading the client from going forward, and the lawyer is unable to withdraw without causing serious harm to the client. In addition, Rule 1.6(c) may permit disclosure of client confidences and secrets when the lawyer learns of a prospective fraud on the tribunal involving, for example, bribery or intimidation of witnesses. The terms “criminal case” and “criminal defendant” as used in Rule 3.3 and its Comment include juvenile delinquency proceedings and the person who is the subject of such proceedings.