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To what computer did you hook up the USB cable from the Canon printer, please?
OK. You cannot get a printer to work with a Chromebook that way.
I am researching the model of printer you want to get working... just a minute or two please.
That printer is not a Cloud-ready model.
So, to print to it, it must be hooked up to a computer (not a Chrome computer) that can get it connected to the Cloud through the computer's internet connection.
In other words, the printer, to be printed to from a Chromebook, must be a networkable printer, or else networked through a networked (non-Chrome) computer it is hooked up to.
That Canon model you named is not a Cloud-ready printer. It cannot be used by itself with a Chromebook, I'm sorry to have to say.