Hi, I'm Ashik. Welcome to JustAnswer. I'm reviewing your question now, and will post back with your reply ASAP
You shouldn't have bought that printer because a printer unused for longer period especially years may have internal damages. For example, due to outside temperate or environmental conditions, humidity, dusts etc, the toner cartridge may damage, toner can clump in the cartridge etc. It is also possible that the fuser (the heating unit that bonds the toner to the paper) developed flat spots with long periods of inactivity.
Dusts and other foreign objects on drum also makes things worse/ If the drum get scratched due to these, then the printing will not be normal. So the issues you are having might be because of these conditions. It may work if you replace the toner cartridge, but it could be the drum or fuser. Try taking out the toner cartridge, shake it well and put back. If there is dust, clean them using Lint free cloth lightly moistened with isopropyl. Then try printing.
1 - No, you don't need a disc to download the printer. You can download it from here --> https://www.usa.canon.com/internet/portal/us/home/support/details/printers/support-laser-printers-imageclass/color-imageclass-mf8350cdn
2 - Yes, it is possible that the printer has got internal damage due to inactivity.
I'd recommend to take it in to Canon store to have them check up and see if it is worth fixing. If the drum, fuser or toner are damaged, then it will cost almost the price of a new generation printer.
If you have any questions or would like any additional information, please let me know.
Refer this article about cleaning laser printer, toner cartridge etc --> http://www.wikihow.com/Clean-a-Laser-Printer