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Highly unlikely that running your dishwasher with the water turned off is the reason it won't fill now. A much more likely culprit is that the washer in the shut off broke loose and is clogging up the shut off. The first thing I would do is shut the water off to the house then pull the guts out of the shut off and check the washer. If the washer did break loose you'll probably have to replace the shut off valve.
The washer is inside the shut off valve. You have to take the valve apart to see it. It's not unusual for a shut off valve to fail like this.
I'm saying the water main needs to be shut off and the guts need to be removed from the shut off to check it out.