What are the uses of sodium chloride (NaCL) in veterinary medicine?
Type of Animal: Dogs and Cats
For study purposes only-- Vet tech student
Hi there,Thanks for your question regarding the usage of NaCl in Veterinary medicine. This really is such a big topic and there are several chapters written in many Vet-tech and Veterinary textbooks on this subject! I will give you a few links at the bottom that you will probably want to refer to for more in depth information, as there really is a lot of information out there. Sodium chloride has many uses in Vet medicine - ranging from flushing solution to different usages intravenously. The main usage would be as a crystalloid replacement fluid. Hopefully you have gone through fluid osmolarity and know there difference between isotonic saline, hypotonic saline and hypertonic saline. Isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) has the same concentration of solutes as the blood and cells. This means administering this solution intravenously to an animal is a very good way of replacing fluid volume to maintain cardiovascular function. This is typically used in situations such as general anesthesia to maintain blood pressure and replace any fluid loss (blood loss etc).Hypotonic saline (0.45%) has a lower concentration of solutes than blood and cells. This leads to a natural movement of fluid from the blood vessels into the cells (via starling's equilibrium equation). This solution is sometimes used for ongoing maintenance fluids on inpatients.Hypertonic saline (7.5%) has a much higher concentration of solutes than blood an cells leading to a natural movement of fluid from cells into the blood stream. This can be used (with much caution) in some states of shock where an increase of blood pressure is needed quickly. Each of these can also be used in different situations to correct electrolyte abnormalities as well.Out of these - the most commonly used is isotonic saline (0.9%). We use this during anaesthesia intravenously - but it can also be given subcutaneously. Sometimes we will also add other electrolytes to this in order to rectify an electrolyte issue (added potassium for example).Isotonic saline is also commonly used as a flush for wounds, for exploratory surgeries and for opthalmic use. These are the most common uses of NaCl in the Veterinary world in a nutshell! As I say, there are many chapters written on this topic in Veterinary fluid & electrolyte textbooks. Here are a few you may want to consider buying or borrowing:http://www.amazon.com/Fluids-Electrolytes-Vet-Tech-CD-ROM/dp/0766816494http://www.amazon.com/Electrolyte-Acid-Base-Disorders-Practice-Therapy/dp/1437706541/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1335391648&sr=1-1http://www.amazon.com/Fluid-Therapy-Veterinary-Technicians-Nurses/dp/0813814847/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1335391648&sr=1-3I hope this helps and please just reply if you have any further questions or need any further info on this topic.Thanks and please now click accept.Kind Regards,Dr M D Edwards
Veterinarian - BVSc.