Drinking and urinating excessively can be a symptom of a number of different ailments, but the most common are diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease and hypercalcemia (usually secondary to cancer). Other, more rare causes, include diabetes insipidus and psychogenic polyuria and polydipisia. Since your dog has had this vaccination with no problems in the past, I think that it is probably just a coincidence that the shot was given and then these signs started. The only connection that I can make, is that perhaps there was an immune reaction that caused something called Lyme immune complexes to be deposited in the kidneys, causing some acute kidney failure.
The first step is to take you dog into the veterinarian for a physical examination. If you think that your dog is in immediate distress (seems disoriented, difficulty walking, etc...) then you can have this done at an emergency clinic this evening...otherwise, you can wait until the morning. Some blood and urine tests should be done to evaluate for kidney disease, diabetes and signs of the other problems. To diagnose Cushing's or Addison's further, more specific, blood tests would need to be done. Cancer is usually diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound and chest X-rays.
If all of these tests yield no findings, then the dog should be evaluated for diabetes insipidus. This is a disease that is caused by a decrease in the synthesis or secretion of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). This can happen secondary to a brain tumor, or it can be idiopathic (of unknown cause). There is also nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, in which the kidneys do not respond to ADH. The central diabetes insipidus can be tested for with a trial therapy with ADH. This is a treatable disease.
Psychogenic polyuria and polydipsia is exactly what it sounds like-the dog just drinks excessive amounts of water because it likes to, and therefore urinates excessively. This is not really a disease, but just an annoyance to the owner.
I am attaching a client information handout that I use in my practice concerning this problem. I hope that you find it useful.Click Here
I hope that this information is of help to you. Please let me know if I can be of further assistance.