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If she has not seen the vet, I would be most worried about an internal injury that is causing these symptoms. She could have a collapsed lung, ruptured bowels, etc.
To answer your question, this can definitely cause some behavioral changes. Much like people, dogs remember instances and things that happen to them and they will use caution in the future.
When you take her out, be sure you take her on a leash so that she will not get spooked and run.
Let me know if you have more specific questions about this.