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The most common worms seen in vomit or feces is the roundworm and tapeworm. Tapeworms are normally seen in feces and resemble grains of rice while roundworms resemble spaghetti. It sounds like you are describing tapeworms to me.
The most common worms found in dogs are: Roundworms, Hookworms, Tapeworms, and Whipworms and Heartworms. Fecal tests can be inaccurate since the fecal matter is examined to look for eggs and it is possible that the dog did not have that heavy of a worm load at that time. With tapeworms, they are sometimes seen around the rectal area or in the fecal matter. In some cases, you do not see them in the fecal matter at all.
In some cases these worms are passed from dog to dog, in other cases such as tapeworms, they are contracted by other methods such as ingesting an infected flea. Most over the counter medicine will only kill one or two types of worms, so you may want to take the actual worms to your vet to determine the type of worms your dog may have and then decide on treatment. Dogs should be checked for worms periodically even if they appear healthy. This is so if your pet does become ill, you are not fighting a worm infestation along with a more serious problem.
For additional information about worms, see this site
Common dewormers are Panacur, which is a prescription product so you need to obtain it from your Vet and it works on roundworms and whipworms. Wormers labeled as Pyrantel Pamoate are the best over the counter medication for roundworms. Drontal plus is also a prescription product and is used for the treatment of Tapeworms, though dewormers with praziquantel work well against tapeworms. Many heartworm preventatives also help control whipworms and roundworms. Another reason to keep your dog on Heartworm medication. If this is tapeworms and you wish to try and treat at home, I would use praziquantel dewormer.
Since tapeworms are normally spread through fleas, you will need to ensure your dogs are on a good flea preventative. I would treat all the dogs in the household if this was my dogs.
However, if you have even a couple of the worms you could take them in to the vet and ask for Drontal Plus. Since the dog was recently seen, he shouldn't require another visit. It is worth calling and asking.
The only other thing might be if your dog ingested some spoiled food that contained maggots and is vomiting it back up. Only you would know if your dog had access somehow to spoiled food.
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Since there have been recalls on certain foods, please check the following site to be sure the food your animals eat is not affected. If it is affected, contact your vet as soon as possible. Have your dog seen if they have any symptoms. http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/RecallsWithdrawals/
Ok, I saved some of her vomit and the worms that were inside. Thanks for all your help, I really appreciate it!
You are very welcome.