Hi and thank you for your question. Dolmite and rapid lime that is used on lawns is not harmful to dogs, they contain low toxicity and once applied it is even less. If the dog inhaled it from the bag or got into a bag of it then that may irritate the skin and the lungs and I would seek veterinary help . Many owners use it to sweeten the soil and cut down on the urine odor of the pets. Even most fertilizers are not harmful once applied to the lawn. If it is a spray then you would wait for it to dry.
However if the package gives you a warning then it may have another ingredient in it that is harmful, but what you find in your garden stores or hardware stores are okay.
you can read more here http://en.allexperts.com/q/Fertilizer-717/safety-lime.htm