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Hi Martin. If there was contact of disc material on the right L5 nerve root causing pain, you would expect that pain to radiate into the right leg. In the absence of leg pain, you would have to consider other possible sources, such as the SI joint (if the pain is primarily in the sacral region), sequelae of scheuermanns disease, intermittent spondylolisthesis (excess movement) with ligamentous strain or injury, or chronic muscle strain. Many sources of low back pain in otherwise healthy young men such as yourself improve over time with conservative treatment. Surgery is typically not needed, or does not substantially improve longterm outcome.
Anti-inflammatories are hit-or-miss when it comes to low back pain. An SI joint injection can be both diagnositic and therapeutic. If it works you have your answer and your solution. If it does not work, you would have to look elsewhere for the cause. If it works only partially then you likely have a compound condition involving more than one source. In most instances of chronic or recurrent low back pain, a combination of approaches is required including physical therapy, medication, injections, acupuncture, meditation, etc.
It's difficult to make out details in these films. I see the findings mentioned above and what looks like an exaggerated lumbar lordosis (curve), which can predispose one to early degenerative changes of the spine (i.e. arthritis) particularly in the joints (facets) and margins of the vertebral bodies. This could be the cause of chronic progressive pain. Have you had a CT of the abdomen and pelvis to rule out an internal source of pain (i.e. other than the axial skeleton)? This would be a good idea if your doctors are not certain that the pain is musculoskeletal. Otherwise, you should consider seeing a pain management specialist at an academic medical institution (one with a medical school). These specialists are often anesthesiologists who have specialized training in eliminating or mitigating sources of pain.