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Hello from JustAnswer.
There is limited ability to test for nerve dysfunction or damage at home. There is no method to look for evidence of arachnoiditis at home.
You can try to identify nerve dysfunction by testing sensation along the skin using a Q-tip or pointed object. Doctors talk about testing for pin prick sensation, but we do not use a tool that is so sharp that it will puncture skin. It is not always easy to test oneself, but if you can do so and compare any loss of sensation to nerve patterns or dermatomes in the skin (which are easy to find by searching on the internet), that would be the best that can be done at home.
Seeing nerve dysfunction on testing, either at home or at a doctors office, does not say why the nerve dysfunction is present. Identifying the cause of the nerve dysfunction, including whether it could be due to arachnoiditis, cannot be done at home.
While it is also impossible to test for whether nerve dysfunction is permanent at home, the reality is that most of the causes of nerve dysfunction causing symptoms such as you describe will likely improve with proper treatment.
If I can provide any clarification, please let me know.