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Welcome to Just Answer. I am an Adult Neurologist and was contacted to answer your question.
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To answer your question, " Can dyslexia appear on an MRI?"
the answer is actually yes and no
routine MRI, as done to determine if you have had a stroke or tumor, etc
will not find any specific abnormality to suggest dyslexia
for many years there was a theory that grey matter in certain areas of the brain would be thicker as a result
of having dyslexia, but that was studied and never proven
But there is another type of MRI, called functional MRI of fMRI
and with that test you can look at "activation" of the brain or changes in oxygen utilization in the brain regionally
while doing a task in the MRI
so you do a task that makes the dyslexic subject work, and you can see the changes in the brain as compared to normal patients
there are currently clinical studies underway looking at that change
I will attach a webpage of a study being done by Lilly pharmaceuticals, to look at Atomoxetine (Strattera)
on patients with dyslexia, using fMRI
please get back to me with questions about this if I can help Dr Frank T