26. Sampling error can be defined by which of the following statements?
a. increased by increasing sample size
b. larger as the diversity of sample values becomes smaller
c. can be minimized by using simple random sampling
d. becomes equal to zero over many samples
27. Which of the following statements is true with respect to sample size?
a. use small samples when mailing questionnaires
b. the greater the number of subgroups of interest to the study, the larger the sample
c. more subjects are always better
d. large samples increase sampling error
28. Which of these statements is true regarding cluster sampling?
a. one example of a nonprobability sampling method
b. individuals grouped together based on cluster of profile characteristics
c. minimizes the risk of bias due to a heterogeneous population
d. a great time-saver compared to simple random sampling
29. When might you need a larger sample to represent the population?
a. the amount of variability within groups is small
b. the difference between the two groups is small
c. the difference between the two groups is great
d. both a and c
30. David asks the first 10 freshmen he sees on campus a series of questions. This is an
example of a ____________ sampling technique.
b. simple random
d. proportional stratified
31. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Validity refers to the results of a test not the test itself.
b. Validity progresses from low to high degrees rather than all or none.
c. A test can lack validity and still be a reliable measure.
d. A test can lack reliability and still be a valid measure.
32. What levels of measurement define most variables in behavioral and social science research?
a. interval and ratio
b. nominal and ordinal
c. nominal and ratio
d. nominal and interval
33. Which one of the following is NOT an important criterion for increasing reliability?
a. eliminate unclear test items
b. standardize the environmental conditions in which the test is given
c. moderate the ease and difficulty of the test
d. use subjective scoring procedures
34. Which of the following is an example of method error?
a. subject fatigue
b. bias in grading
c. lack of motivation
d. test-taking anxiety
35. Which is the least frequently established form of reliability?
b. internal consistency
36. What are the two types of criterion validity?
a. content and construct validity
b. content and parallel validity
c. predictive and parallel validity
d. concurrent and predictive validity
37. Dr. Brown finds that results from different methods used to assess the same trait are highly
correlated and results from different methods used to assess different traits are not
significantly correlated. These results demonstrate which two types of validity respectively?
a. predictive and concurrent
b. concurrent and predictive
c. discriminant and convergent
d. convergent and discriminant
38. A test that measures knowledge of a specific topic is considered what type of test?
a. achievement test
b. attitude test
c. personality test
d. projective test
39. Which assessment technique is used in field work?
a. Likert scaling
b. Thurstone scaling
d. item analysis
40. Which of the following is NOT a component of a multiple choice question?
a. the stem
b. the root
41. Name a multiple choice item which provides a plausible but wrong answer.
42. Which of the following is an example of poor characteristics of a questionnaire?
a. Questions are objective and forthright.
b. They are accompanied by a cover letter.
c. They begin with the more difficult, thought-provoking questions while the reader is
d. There is a clear statement of transition when the topic of the questions changes.
43. Which of the following is a reason you need to be cautious when observing behavior?
a. Your very presence may affect the behavior being observed.
b. The researcher records everything that happens.
c. Your questionnaire should not be too long and tedious.
d. You may confuse the difficulty index with the discrimination index.
44. A good cover letter for a survey questionnaire has all but one of the following characteristics
listed below. Which is NOT a characteristic of a good cover letter?
a. The initial questions are relatively simple, nonthreatening and easy-to-answer.
b. It is written on official letterhead.
c. It promises confidentiality.
d. It clearly states the purpose of the questionnaire and the importance of the study.
45. Which measure would be used to describe how far a test score is from the average test
d. standard deviation
46. In a set of scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5, what raw score is
represented by a z-score of 1.00?
47. In a set of scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what raw score is
represented by a z-score of 2.00?
48. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores fall between the mean and a z-score of
49. What is another phrase used to describe a bell-shaped curve?
a. average curve
b. regular-shaped curve
c. normal curve
d. elliptical curve
50. You are interviewing classmates to find out their political party affiliation. When you pick
the measure of central tendency to use in presenting your results, which should you choose?