Yes sharepoint could absolutely help. Basically what sharepoint would allow, is multiple people to be able to use this document and collaborate on it if necessary. You could also set permissions so only certain people could do certain things with the sheet.
There is kind of a learning curve to getting sharepoint set up and configured but to give you an idea of how this works please see the following link:http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel-help/use-a-shared-workbook-to-collaborate-HP010096833.aspx
Sharepoint is going to be your best solution as there is not going to need to be any conversion of the original document.
Google docs is a free service provided by google that is an online suite of programs similar to microsoft office. It allows you to upload your documents and then have different people work on them at the same time over the internet. The issue is that sometimes when in converts a document you lose functions and need to spend time making it work like it did in excel. You could give it a shot and see if your sheet works well in google docs format. To get started you just create an account at docs.google.com
and then upload your document. Here is a short video which will show you how http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGEg0-ugUI0
For that reason sharepoint is the way to go. In sharepoint everyone will be using the original document.
I would imagine you have some sort of IT administrator at your organization who will set up sharepoint. The link I have you above shows you how to share the document via sharepoint. Some configuration may need to be done by your admin to get you set up and able to share before it will work so you should check with them.
With sharepoint it can be made available on the web so there is no need to convert it to a webpage. If you convert an excel sheet to a web page you will lose the functionality of the sheet. If you just want people to be able to view the data that can be done but to even make it be able to be sortable as a web page is a whole process.
Based on what you said you want to do with sharing with your teams I think sharepoint will be your best method.
I would suggest you see if sharepoint is all set up in your organization and try that, but it also couldn't hurt to give google docs a shot as well.
I am sorry I cannot say do "x,y,and z" and everything will be perfect but this for this question I think it will be best if you try my suggestions and see what works best for you and your teams with your specific spread sheet.