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Are you still using drugs or drinking alcohol?
When you say that your mood changes, does that mean that the mood is decreased or increased or both?
Are you having any other symptoms when your mood changes?
It is good that you are no longer using any drugs or alcohol, as any substance use or abuse can make it more difficult to diagnose any underlying mental health condition.
Agitation is a symptom that can occur with many different mental health conditions, including whether the mood is normal, decreased, or increased. Agitation with a normal mood is most often seen with anxiety. Agitation can also occur only when the mood is decreased or increased. Anger also can occur when the mood is normal, decreased, or increased.
I ask about the mood changes because that would be the one of the primary considerations to diagnose the type of mental health condition that may be present. Everybody has some minor changes in mood from day to day, and that is normal. When the mood is decreased beyond the normal variability, it is called depression, and when the mood is increased beyond the normal variability, it is called mania. While many people with depression will never have periods of mania, essentially everyone that has periods of mania will ultimately also have episodes of depression, so the mental health condition that causes mania is also called manic-depression disorder, or more properly now called bipolar disorder.
When you say that your mood changes, would you say that there are periods during which your mood is decreased or increased, or both? Or are you only referring to feeling agitated or angry?
Sudden anger episodes such as you describe are actually not a mood disorder. It falls more in the category of an impulse control disorder. And if the episodes are more significant, they would be called an intermittent explosive disorder.
The antidepressants that are active on serotonin are the drugs that are most often used for this situation, and that includes the Zoloft that has been tried. You do not mention what dose of the Zoloft was used, but if only the starting dose was prescribed, then the next step would be to increase to a higher dose. If a higher dose is not effective, then it would be appropriate to change to a different antidepressant, either another SSRI, such as citalopram, or an SNRI, such as venlafaxine.
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That is not unique to any specific mental disorder. Sometimes, cognitive dysfunction occurs due to the mental health condition. But sometimes, it is simply a defense mechanism, which can occur with any of the above mental health conditions.
Discovering why someone's behavior is the way it is frequently requires multiple counseling sessions to gain insight. Even after a diagnosis is made, whether an impulse control disorder or a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder, it is frequently not clear why the condition is present.