1. Describe various concepts of mental health and mental ill health. Mental health is known as a sense of well-being and happiness with the absence of symptoms which would impair one's quality of emotional, physical and mental functioning. Mental illness is the opposite.
2. Describe and critically evaluate the major models of mental health and their value
bases. Professionals look at mental health from biological, environmental, cultural, psychosocial aspects to evaluate the root cause of the symptom. A client must be evaluated physically for any neurological, biological, medical condition. Then the environment, both past & present is evaluated, the cultural factors considered, and emotional resilience and ability of the client is taken into consideration in diagnosing any mental illness. Professionals can approach it from a medical model, looking at cause & effect, a holistic model incorporating all elements of the person's existence, an environmental model of life circumstance... all will produce results that will indicate treatment in relation to the model used.
3. Reflect on the usefulness of these models for working with service users and their
families. It is helpful to look at all aspects of a client's life when determining a diagnosis and treatment. All models have merit, and therefore utilizing a combined approach will give the most well-rounded evaluation.
4. Discuss and evaluate research into the causes of mental ill health. Although the exact cause of most mental illnesses is not known, it is becoming clear through research that many of these conditions are caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors.
Some mental illnesses have been linked to an abnormal balance of special chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other. If these chemicals are out of balance or are not working properly, messages may not make it through the brain correctly, leading to symptoms of mental illness. In addition, defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental conditions.
Other biological factors that may be involved in the development of mental illness include:
- Genetics (heredity): Many mental illnesses run in families, suggesting that people who have a family member with a mental illness are more likely to develop one themselves. Susceptibility is passed on in families through genes. Experts believe many mental illnesses are linked to abnormalities in many genes -- not just one. That is why a person inherits a susceptibility to a mental illness and doesn't necessarily develop the illness. Mental illness itself occurs from the interaction of multiple genes and other factors --such as stress, abuse, or a traumatic event -- which can influence, or trigger, an illness in a person who has an inherited susceptibility to it.
- Infections: Certain infections have been linked to brain damage and the development of mental illness or the worsening of its symptoms, For example, a condition known as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder (PANDA) associated with the Streptococcus bacteria has been linked to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other mental illnesses in children.
- Brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses.
- Prenatal damage: Some evidence suggests that a disruption of early fetal brain development or trauma that occurs at the time of birth -- for example, loss of oxygen to the brain -- may be a factor in the development of certain conditions, such as autism.
- Substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse, in particular, has been linked to anxiety, depression, and paranoia.
- Other factors: Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses.
Psychological factors that may contribute to mental illness include:
- Severe psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse
- An important early loss, such as the loss of a parent
- Poor ability to relate to others
Certain stressors can trigger an illness in a person who is susceptible to mental illness. These stressors include:
- Death or divorce
- A dysfunctional family life
- Feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem, anxiety, anger, or loneliness
- Changing jobs or schools
- Social or cultural expectations (For example, a society that associates beauty with thinness can be a factor in the development of eating disorders.)
- Substance abuse by the person or the person's parents
5. Describe Marius Romme's research into 'hearing voices' and practice issues arising from
it. Marius Romme basically stated that schizophrenia
"is a harmful concept" and that delusions, hearing voices and hallucinations, so-called "symptoms" of schizophrenia are not related to an illness but may be reactions to traumatic and troubling events in life. Treatment recommendations can change, such as eliminating certain medication and attempting to replace it with PTSD and trauma-focused treatment.
6. Describe the influences on the historical development of mental health law and policy. Mentally ill people have been discriminated against and not given care when they are unable to reach out for help themselves. Mental health law was enacted in order to provide help for those who could not help themselves.
7. Describe and critically evaluate trends in current law and policy.
Mental health legislation is largely used in the management of psychiatric disorders, such as dementia or psychosis, and developmental disabilities, where a person does not possess the ability to act in a legally competent manner and requires treatment and/or another person to act in his or her best interests. The laws generally cover the requirements and procedures for involuntary commitment and compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital or other facility.
In some jurisdictions, court orders are required for compulsory treatment; in others, psychiatrists may treat compulsorily by following set procedures, usually with means of appeal or regular scrutiny to ensure compliance with the law.
8. Discuss the major themes in the government guidance, "Modernising the Care
Programme Approach" and the implications for practice. I can't find this one; you may have a copy of this?
9. Discuss the tension between 'care and control' in current legislation and guidance. I would guess that in order to give care to those unable to take care of themselves, this gives the govt. a certain level of 'control' over them, and this creates a sticky situation for the govt. so as to not be wrongly accused of mistreatment. The patient must be treated with respect and fairness and not just "institutionalized" and cast off.
I hope this was somewhat helpful to you... without your text/class lectures/readings, etc.... this type of answer is very challenging for us! But, I gave it my best shot!!