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DrFee, Psychologist
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• Describe the theory of operant conditioning. • Compare and contrast positive an

Resolved Question:

• Describe the theory of operant conditioning.
• Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement.
• Determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective. Explain your reasoning.
• Select a scenario in which you would apply operant conditioning to shape behavior.
• Create a reinforcement schedule for your selected behavior
Submitted: 2 years ago.
Category: Mental Health
Expert:  DrFee replied 2 years ago.

DrFee :

Hello! Is this for a homework assignment?

DrFee :

Operant conditioning is the shaping of behavior via consequences --positive or negative reinforcement.

DrFee :

It's different from "classical conditioning" in that it works with "voluntary" behavior, classical conditioning (CC) is concerned with shaping reflexive behavior. The most famous example of CC is Pavlov's dogs, where Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell, but this occurred because he paired the bell with the presentation of food, where salivation occurs as a reflex.

DrFee :

Hi

Customer:

yes it is

DrFee :

Ok...I started to answer. Do you understand the difference between operant and classicla conditioning?

DrFee :

classical

Customer:

yes I do. I have to go back and refer to notes because my kids are running back and forth so my mind is a bite of scatter. I want to make sure I am understanding this assignment correctly because I am trying to keep getting my grade point up to an A.

DrFee :

;) I understand being distracted!

DrFee :

Positive reinforcement = adding something to the subject to increse behavior

DrFee :

Negative reinforcement = taking something way to increase behavior

Customer:

lol. whatcha gonna do. Can't beat them(not that I would) and can't send them away. LOL. I love them but wish they would understand my going back to school is to benefit them in the future. ;)

Customer:

ok I got that. Would you like to see what I have so far?

DrFee :

If you praise one child for being kind to the other child, and the first child increases their behavior of being kind, that's positive reinforcement. It's tough to be in school and have kids!!!

DrFee :

OK...can you paste it in here?

Customer:

n


Theory of the Operant Conditioning


Operant conditioning was fathered by B.F. Skinner, he actually had take the idea from Edward Thorndike’s theory known as the Law of Effect(1905), which was taking animals and running test on them within a box, and made it his own known as Law of Effect – Reinforcement.


Skinner distinguished between the respondent behavior and learned behavior which what is known as operant behavior. Operant behavior could be described as the observable effects it has on the environment. Operant conditioning means to change the behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response (McLeod, 2007). Operant conditioning is learning in which the probability of a response is changed by a chance in its environment.


Reinforcements


There are many things which must be understood when there is talk about reinforcements. There is a positive reinforcement and then there is the negative. Positive reinforcement occurs when a stimulus is presented after a response, thus encouraging the response to be repeated. Negative reinforcement occurs when a stimulus is removed after a response, encouraging the response to be repeated. In this context, the terms positive and negative do not refer to good or bad; but rather, to the addition or remove of a stimulus ("Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology", 2012). Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement and is any consequence that decreases the chances of a behavior being repeated.


The reinforcements are able to be identified as primary or secondary. Primary reinforcements are naturally satisfying to the individual, including food, water, and physical expressions of tenderness. Primary punishers, in contrast, are those things that are naturally unpleasant, which maybe pain and extreme temperatures. Secondary reinforcements and punishers are neither satisfying nor unpleasant based on their association with its primary counterparts (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2005, 88-91).


 

Customer:

This is what I have so far.

Customer:

I think I double think everything which makes me doubt what I know

DrFee :

It's very good!

DrFee :

I only noticed one misspelling....last sentence of the first section you said "chance" instead of "change"

Customer:

So is it right? My professor seems to be very professional and very distant. So I am nervous with it.

Customer:

Then the senario I was going to chose was maybe a preschool class or special ed class

DrFee :

yes --I am re-reading...good that you have the word "naturaly" in the primary reinforcer and punisher...that's a key word

DrFee :

That's a good scenario --

DrFee :

I know --a distant professor can be anxiety provoking

DrFee :

And, going back to school can be anxiety provoking too!

DrFee :

But, it looks to me like you put a lot of effort into what you have so far.

Customer:

okay... I am feeling a little more confident in my paper.

DrFee :

Good! I think you should be!!!

Customer:

Yes school was never an easy thing for me to begin with but now I am full of anxiety. I want to get a A GPA.

DrFee :

I hope you don't get too tied up into an A gpa ---it can distract from the joy of learning.

Customer:

Okay thank you for helping me out. You gave me a great confident boost.

DrFee :

I'm so glad.

DrFee :

You are welcome

Customer:

I won't it is a goal I am shooting for.

DrFee :

OK...it's a fine goal, but it doesn't make or break a good eduction.

Customer:

I am at a 2.15 GPA right now. I love what I am learning and I set the goal for myself to show my daughter that is 10

Customer:

that goals are okay to set

Customer:

and achieve

Customer:

no matter the age

DrFee, Psychologist
Category: Mental Health
Satisfied Customers: 437
Experience: I help people overcome anxiety and enjoy life again.
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