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A voluntary committal is when a person 18 years of age or older, or a parent or guardian of a person age 17 or under, applies for admission to a facility for observation, diagnosis or treatment freely and of their own accord
An involuntary Baker Act is when a person is taken to a facility for involuntary examination.
This can only be done when :
There is reason to believe that he or she is mentally ill and because of his or her mental illness and
The person has refused voluntary examination and
The person is unable to determine for himself or herself whether examination is necessary and without care or treatment and the person is likely to suffer from neglect or refuse to care for himself or herself and such refusal could pose a threat of harm to his or her well being; and there is a substantial likelihood that without care or treatment, the person will cause serious bodily harm to himself, herself or others in the near future as evidenced by recent behavior.
A person may not be detained for more than 72 hours.
Are there other conditions?
Yes, a law enforcement officer may take an individual to a facility for evaluation if he has reason to believe that the individual's behavior meets statutory guidelines for involuntary examination.
If a person is willing to swear in a Petition for Involuntary Examination that he has personally witnessed an individual causing harm to themselves or others, an "ExParte" for an Involuntary Examination can be made.