This is a great question, and one we are seeing (in one form or another) more and more of here at Just Answer. I will be direct in answering your query: Yes. In fact, the two most likely suspects are called "Histrionic Personality Disorder" (less likely, given your description), and "Narcissistic Personality Disorder" (far more likely, given your description). In fact, narcissism is a growing problem in the world, and its hallmark is a list of symptoms that almost exactly matches those in your question. The person feels s/he is superior to others, and is hyper sensitive because they feel the needs to aggressively shut down any feedback from the rest of the world. In other words, their superiority is build on a house of sand, and they feel tenuous (internally - they would never let on that they feel this way) at best. So if ANY perceived negative is directed their way (regardless of how severe or benign it is) they launch an ALL OUT attack on the person so as to make that person NEVER want to go through that again.
For what it's worth, the attacks you feel from this person are not your fault at all - they are the result of poor parenting in the very young childhood of the person in question. I wish you the best of luck - these folks are tough nuts to crack. If you are satisfied with the response, please hit "Accept." That is the only way I can receive credit for my answer. Thanks-