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There is no official term as brief mental break down. Perhaps you are referring to brief psychotic reaction. In Any event the precipitating event can range from drug use; extreme stress, extreme anxiety, and /or overwhelming depression. The hall mark is that usually lasts for a few weeks or less and tends to be self correcting in between 2 and four weeks. It usually requires removal from the stressful environment , which in most cases means hospitalization. In most situations medication is employed. So to recap it can refer to any mental disorder that is limited in scope and time and resolves in a relatively short period. Best of luck.
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