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Methyl red and bromothymol blue are used for the pH testing.
Glucose oxidase is what's used for the glucose detection which undergoes an enzyme reaction.
Protein is measured usually through the reagent called tetrabromophenol.
These are pH regulated and change pH based on the protein content (this doesn't have anything to do with the other pH test).
The results and interpretations couldn't be done unless you had some control chemicals to use to calibrate the test with.
For example, if you knew that one sample had a certain amount of glucose and another sample a higher glucose then you could calibrate your urine test by knowing how the those reagents react based on the level of color change.
Tetrabromophenol is simply called Bromophenol blue.
I am not quite sure what you mean by standard testing procedure. It reacts to the acidity and basicity of whatever compound it comes in contact with. The reaction has to do with the hydronium ion or hydrogen ions which react with this chemical to cause the color change from the various shades of yellow to blue.
One can take a known pH solution and react it with the TBP compound and find out what color it takes on. This would standardize the color and a chart can be created.
Please let me know if that helps.