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Hi Dr Ashori here, give me a moment please to reply.
It is perfectly possible and normal for some women to have higher levels of amniotic fluid with absolutely no pathology, meaning no anomaly or underlying abnormality.
Certainly it can be a rental issue or esophageal issue as your physician indicated and though US can be good to look at the anatomy (as the have done with level 2 US) it can miss certain things or just not be detailed enough to find certain things.
It's good that they didn't see anything in particular, that's always the best sign.
Most serious anomalies are visible these days with the US technology that we have.
As for the glucose test, I am guessing they will do the 4-hour test which is fairly accurate in determining diabetes, some doctors will check your fructosamine or hemoglobin A1C.