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Yes, it is possible for a herpes infection to cause symptoms related to nerve irritation without sores or other visible skin manifestations. In the vast majority of cases, there is a combination of sores and symptoms from nerve irritation, but it is possible to get the nerve irritation symptoms alone. It is rare, but it is possible.
There are also a few other germs that can cause an infection of the urethra, such as mycoplasma or ureaplasma. It is also possible to develop non-infectious inflammation, which can occur because of sensitivity to something to which the penis has come in contact. During sexual encounters, this is most due to residua from cleaning products, and if the encounter involved oral sex, it cold be a reaction to something that your partner used for teeth or oral cleansing.
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