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Yes and no, but this is partly semantics. While folliculitis is more often a bacterial infection, it can be caused by a fungal infection. If there is a folliculitis that is caused by a fungus, it would not be called a ringworm that looks like a folliculitis; it would be called a fungal folliculitis. If the cause of a folliculitis is uncertain, then a culture may need to be done.
Yes, they can look similar. Initial empiric treatment with an antibiotic is often sufficient, but in stubborn cases, a culture would be appropriate, as your doctor has done.