Hello from JustAnswer.
It is not necessary for you to alter your diet to replace bile salts. Your body and liver will be able to readily form plenty of new bile salts from your diet.
Some of the bile salts are created by the action of good germs in your gut, and a recent infection may flush the good germs out of your gut. It may help recovery from an infection of the gut to use a probiotic supplement to replenish the good germs in the gut, but replenishing the good germs is usually more helpful in reliving any nagging residual symptoms than to help in restoring normal levels of bile salts.
The only other issue to consider when passing clay colored stool would be whether there is any active inflammation of the liver or gallbladder disease. Some amount of inflammation of the liver can occur with infections of the gut, and as long as the symptoms from the food poisoning is getting better, then there is no reason for further evaluation. However, if you are mostly getting better, but are having increasing or persistent pain in the right upper abdomen, it may be better to discuss this with your doctor and to consider blood tests of liver function or an ultrasound of the liver and gallbladder.
In summary, then, there is no need to alter the diet, although a probiotic may help to replenih the good germs in the gut. As long as the symptoms of the food poisoning is improving, then no other interventions are necessary, but if there is increasing or persistent pain in the right upper abdomen, then further evaluation may be necessary.
If I can provide any additional information, please let me know.