Do you have any pain in other area or joints? Is there any redness or swelling of the toe? How long the symptoms are there? Are there any other symptoms? Is there any significant past illness?
The short sharp stabbing pain in the toe can be due to nerve irritation.
As you have lymphedema at the same leg it can cause pressure on the nerve producing such symptoms.
The other possibilities are arthritis or gout. If it too much, you can try with motrin or tynelol. Otherwise check it with doctor for an examination to know the precise cause.