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Dr Basu
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Category: Medical
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Experience:  MD
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1. Which of the following is indirectly responsible for minute-to-minute

Customer Question

1. Which of the following is indirectly responsible for minute-to-minute control of breathing?
(Points : 1)
A) CO2 levels
B) HCO3– levels
C) Lactate levels
D) Alpha motor neurons

2. While observing a patient’s breathing, you note that the depth and rate first increase, then decrease, followed by a period of apnea. Which of the following describes this patten of breathing? (Points : 1)
A) Apneustic breathing
B) Biot’s breathing
C) Cheyne-Stokes breathing
D) Paradoxic breathing

3. Causes of central neurogenic hyperventilation include which of the following?
I. Head trauma
II. Inadequate brain blood flow
III. Severe brain hypoxia
(Points : 1)
A) II and III
B) I and II
C) I and III
D) I, II, and III

4. What reflex may help maintain large tidal volumes during exercise and may be involved in periodic deep sighs during quiet breathing? (Points : 1)
A) Carotid
B) Head’s paradoxical
C) Hering-Breuer
D) J receptor

5. How should oxygen therapy be administered to chronically hypercapnic patients? (Points : 1)
A) Avoid giving any supplemental oxygen
B) Give as much oxygen as possible (60% to 100%)
C) Withhold oxygen until the patient is intubated
D) Give as much oxygen as required to maintain adequate oxygenation

6. What receptors cause a rapid shallow breathing pattern when stimulated by pulmonary disease? (Points : 1)
A) Irritant receptors
B) J receptors
C) Muscle spindles
D) Peripheral proprioceptors

7. Hypercapnia, acidemia, and hypoxemia stimulate specialized nerve structures called __________________ that transmit impulses to the medulla, increasing ventilation. (Points : 1)
A) chemoreceptors
B) gamma-efferent system
C) muscle spindle fibers
D) proprioceptors

8. Physical stimulation of the conducting airways, as with suctioning or bronchoscopy can result in which of the following?
I. Bronchoconstriction
II. Coughing
III. Laryngospasm
(Points : 1)
A) I
B) I and III
C) I, II, and III
D) I and III

9. What negative responses can be elicited by suctioning a patient’s airway?
I. Bradycardia
II. Coughing
III. Laryngospasm
IV. Severe bronchospasm

A) I, II, and III
B) II and IV
C) III only
D) I, II, III, and IV

10. Which of the following is NOT an effect of J receptor stimulation?

A) Deep breathing

B) Sensation of dyspnea

C) Expiratory glottic narrowing

D) Rapid, shallow breathing

11. What happens in chronic hypercapnia?
I. The central chemoreceptive response to HCO3- is increased
II. The cerebrospinal fluid pH is restored to normal.
III. Responsiveness to increased CO2 is decreased.
(Points : 1)
A) I
B) I and II
C) II and III
D) I, II, and III

12. Biot’s respiration is most frequently observed in patients with which of the following?
(Points : 1)
A) Congestive heart failure

B) Increased intracranial pressure

C) Metabolic acidosis

D) Peripheral nerve disorders

13. Which of the following will occur during even strenuous exercise in a normal healthy individual?
(Points : 1)
A) Blood gases remain stable.

B) The arterial PCO2 rises.

C) The arterial pH falls.

D) The arterial PO2 falls.

14. Which receptors are thought to be primarily responsible for the initial increase in ventilation that occurs at the beginning of exercise?
(Points : 1)
A) Carotid chemoreceptors

B) Irritant receptors

C) J receptors

D) Proprioceptors

15. Which respond more rapidly to high levels of CO2?
(Points : 1)
A) Periperal proprioceptors

B) Carotid chemoreceptors

C) Central chemoreceptors

D) Ventral respiratory centers

16. In patients with closed-head injuries, what may happen if the patient has hypercapnia?
(Points : 1)
A) High CO2 increases the risk of psychotic events.

B) High CO2 levels cause cerebral vasodilation and improved oxygenation.

C) Severe cerebral vasoconstriction results in anoxia and stroke.

D) Vasodilation causes increased intracranial pressure and possibly stops blood flow.

17. Pulmonary J receptors can be stimulated by which of the following?
I. Pulmonary edema
II. Inflammatory processes
III. Pulmonary vascular congestion
(Points : 1)
A) I and III
B) I
C) I and III
D) I, II, and III

18. Coexisting arterial hypoxemia, acidemia, and high PaCO2 (i.e., asphyxia) will have what affect on the peripheral chemoreceptors?
(Points : 1)
A) There is a decreased drive to breathe.

B) There is a maximal increased drive to breathe.

C) There is insufficient information to make a determination.

D) There is virtually no response.

19. What stimulates the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex?
(Points : 1)
A) When the J Receptors repond

B) The stretch of receptors at
Submitted: 5 years ago.
Category: Medical
Expert:  Dr Basu replied 5 years ago.

Mysticdoc :

The views expressed by me are for educational purposes only and do not establish a doctor patient relationship.

Mysticdoc :

1. A

Mysticdoc :


Mysticdoc :


Mysticdoc :


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Mysticdoc :

7. A

Mysticdoc :


Mysticdoc :