Thank you for the additional information.
The RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit are all low, indicating that there is an anemia. The RDW is high which indicates that the size of the various red blood cells is more variable, which is not as worrisome as the fact that there is the anemia. Newly formed red blood cells are larger than older cells, so it is common for the RDW to be elevated when there is anemia. The MCV may help provide guidance as to the cause of the anemia, but since it is normal, it is not helpful.
There are many different possible causes of anemia. Anemia can be due to problems with loss of red blood cells or inadequate production of red blood cells.
Loss of red blood cells can occur from bleeding, such as from ulcers, growths in the gut, or recent surgery. Red blood cells can also be lost because of problems with destroying red blood cells, called a hemolytic anemia.
Decreased production can be due to nutritional deficiencies, such as deficiency in iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid. It also can be due to any condition that affects the bone marrow. It is also can be due to other chronic illnesses, referred to as anemia of chronic disease. This is particularly more common with chronic inflammatory conditions, but can occur with many chronic illnesses.
A low MCV suggests that there is iron deficiency, while a high MCV suggests a vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency. Since the MCV is normal, it either could be a mixed deficiency or it could be due to another cause.
Ultimately, it would require further evaluation to determine which of these possible causes is true in this case. The first step is usually several blood tests and then further tests can be done based upon the findings.