HPV transmission typically occurs through direct skin-to-skin contact, including genital-to-genital contact. Though virus levels are less in saliva compared to other body tissue transmission can occur . The chances of transmission can increase with micro abrasion or oral lesions related to HPV.
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Please note that this information is not a substitute for a personal visit to the doctor
Though its variable the symptoms can be obvious as early as 3 to 4 months.
HPV can be transmitted by mere physical contact (skin to skin contact) and with saliva even without any cut or abrasion also. And this chances of transmission by saliva are increased in case of cut or HPV related mouth lesions (mouth warts).
If your partner is symptomless carrier you have chances of getting the disease and it will depend on the viral load which you receive and your immunity.
And yes the virus remains dormant for very long periods even decades and the person can be source of possible infection without him/herself having any symptoms.