From your description, three possibilities emerge:
1. Herpes zoster
This is what we call shingles. Shingles is an eruption of a herpes zoster virus along a particular part of your body. Most often it occurs on the abdomen or back, but it can certainly erupt along the jaw line, with one side of the tongue and one side of throat involved. Shingles start with pain and some swelling and erupts into a rash after few days. If you notice a rash tomorrow or the day after, you'll know its shingles and you can ask your doctor for medication called Valtrex to treat it.
2. Throat infection with node enlargement
Quite worrisome possibility would be some kind of abscess (collection of pus) around the left side of your throat. This would cause you to have very tough time swallowing and should cause fever as well. The abscess could cause your lymphnodes to swell and become painful. If fever or worsening swallowing occurs, you should worry about this.
3. TMJ problem
TMJ is that joint on which the jaw hinges. Sometimes it may become inflamed and the pain and swelling could emanate both inside the mouth and along the joint line.
Tongue ulcers, canker sores and yeast infection could also cause this, but you havent told me of any such findings in your mouth (do check your tounge for any sores or ulcers...and if there is any "cottage cheese" in your mouth, that would be yeast).
Hope all this helps and take care!