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As long as the information (music, videos, etc.) is still on the iPod, it can be retrieved with either of these methods:
There are two different ways - one is paid (Music and Videos) and one is free (Music Only).
Here is a paid version:
The free version (Music Only) is with a utility called PodPlayer. The utility is made to play your iPod on a computer without iTunes, but it has a file extraction feature. Here is the download link:
If you are going to use this option, uninstall iTunes first. Install the PodPlayer and connect your iPod. It will bring up a window to show your music - select it all, then use the Extract Songs button in the bottom right corner to save all of your music to a folder (in your Music folder).
After that is done, verify everything is present in the folder, then install iTunes. In iTunes, click File>>Add Folder to library, then add the folder you made. You can re-sync or add a new iPod to sync to.