Can you connect your iPod to your computer and allow iTunes to open then select the device from the left hand side menu and you should then see the option on the right hand side to restore your device.
If you can select that and then iTunes will reload the latest software onto your device and automatically restart it and then sync your library back to it so that if there was any corruption in the software it will then be fixed so your phone should then charge correctly and the ringer should operate correctly.
If you would try that and then test it for a day or so and let us know if the issue still persists.
I meant to type iPhone insted of iPod.
The steps are exactly the same and if you owuld try a full restore of the iPhone and then get a friend to give you a call and see if your iPhone will ring and then also test the battery for 24hrs then let me know back in this post if you are still having issues