Hello, I have a question Im hoping you will be able to help me with. Interview a teacher in the elementary grades regarding the teacher's social studies instruction. Include at least eight questions. Create your own questions such as: 1. Do you use a textbook? 2. What do you think of the standards for social studies? 3. How much time is spent per day in this subject area? Next write a Standards Essay Choose one grade level in the elementary grades and evaluate the social studies standards on the Arizona Department of Education's website for that grade level for such things as thoroughness, clarity, and two other criteria of your own choosing. Write an essay of 1,000-1,250 words as a well-supported, objective, academic response to the interview and standards investigation, analyzing how social studies is currently taught today. TIP: You should choose one grade level, but you don't need to just focus on one standards within that grade level. You should review many of the social studies standards in your chosen grade level. Then you are going to discuss how thorough and clear you think those standards are. Do they seem easy to understand? Do they seem comprehensive? Do they cover the content and skills you would expect them to? Thoroughness and clarity are two things for you to evaluate them on, and then you are going to choose two other criteria that would apply to those standards and also discuss how they measure up in those areas. While you are not going to just choose one standard to review, you can give some specific examples from one or more of the standards in discussing the different criteria. This is due Sunday by midnight. I am going to interview a teacher friday and get as much information as I can and also it does not have to be Arizona's standards so I will use tennessee's standards. I just need help organizing and writing this.
Hi there. This won't be a problem. I'll start on the standards part and then add the interview results when you send them on Friday. I'll chat with you soon!
You are very welcome. :-)
OK, thank you. Are they already in a word document?
Sorry, I just saw where you posted. All I really need are your notes. Thanks so much. It will have this ready for you hopefully tomorrow, but definitely Sunday.
Do you have articles from the weekly readings?
I will look for additional sources to supplement the standards discussion as well. If you have any direct quotes from the interview, be sure to put those in quotations and I will include them in the essay and cite them as "personal communication." Other than the notes, I think all's well.
The Elementary Social Studies Curriculum
In this chapter, we examine the many factors that are transforming the elementary social studies curriculum, including the Common Core State Standards, 21st Century Skills, and new technologies such as ebooks, as well as the more traditional topics of civic goals, national curriculum patterns, and values.
● Civic Goals for the Social
● Curriculum Standards: National
and State Standards
● National Curriculum Patterns
● Textbooks and Technologies
C H A P T E R
What Are Your Images of the Social Studies?
Welcome to the world of social studies! What do you remember about your elementary social studies program? If any of the following activities seem familiar, jot down on a piece of paper whether the memory is pleasant. Feel free to add other activities that you remember. Learning about the Pilgrims at Thanksgiving Going on a field trip to a site where your state’s American Indians lived Answering the questions at the end of a textbook chapter Writing to foreign consuls and embassies for information about your assigned country Reenacting pioneer life Singing patriotic songs Preparing and serving different ethnic foods Drawing neighborhood maps
Working on a committee for a group project Learning about the immigrant groups from which you
Came Viewing films Writing a book report on a famous American Role-playing a character, Finding new information
What Are the Goals of Social Studies?
From your examination of images, you can see that teachers have different understandings
of what a good social studies program is and what methods should be used to achieve
social studies goals. However, almost everyone agrees that the primary purpose, mission,
rationale, or main goal of social studies is civic education, less frequently called citizenship
education or civic competence. These definitions stress that all students need the
knowledge, skills, and democratic dispositions to be active and to participate in public life.
Civic education means that all students must be prepared to interact with the increasing
diversity of their communities and the nation, as well as understand the complexity of local,
national, and global issues that are shaping the world.
Goals are the broad statements of desired outcomes. Goals are long-term ideals or
values that are socially determined. In education, they provide the general guides for the
curriculum. Goals come before themes and content standards. Having an end in mind clarifies
the purposes of content taught and the methods employed.
There are four major subgoals of civic education.
1. To acquire knowledge from history, the social sciences, and related areas
2. To develop skills to think and to process information
3. To develop appropriate democratic values, beliefs, and dispositions
4. To have opportunities for civic participation
These four goals are not separate and discrete. Usually they are intertwined and overlapping
(see Figure 1.1). You may find in some state standards or frameworks that two goals
are combined. Social participation may be regarded as a democratic value or the goal may
be stated as “skill attainment and social participation.” The knowledge goal can be referred
to as “knowledge and cultural understanding” or “democratic understanding and civic values.”
Values may sometimes be called civic values to differentiate them from personal values.
But regardless of how the goals are combined or written, together they form the basic
goals of a social studies program. Although these goals may take several years of student
learning, the schools can and should focus their social studies program on these four main
social studies goals, realizing that goals are not achieved in one day, one week, or even one
year. Goals such as good health and good citizenship are pursued by individuals for decades
and in a certain sense are never completely achieved.
As these goals indicate, social studies is about people and, thus, builds on an inherently
high interest. Each of us is concerned about self, family, and friends, and social studies is
designed to help us understand ourselves and our nearby neighbors, as well as those who
live halfway around the world. Creative social studies instruction offers the possibility
of humane individuals who incorporate basic American values such as equality, freedom,
and respect for property and who are able to put these values into action through effective
participation in the classroom, school, community, nation, and the world. Again, this emphasizes
the main purpose of the social studies curriculum: civic education.
Frequently, the process of learning has emotional values attached to it. Did you hate
math in school? Did you love music? For example, when students study pollution, they usually acquire opinions or attitudes about it. Emotional concerns such as racism in the
community can have a striking impact on both subject area and students’ skill development.
Certain skills such as writing or thinking may be taught in school, but there is no guarantee
that students will make use of them. Unless students have a commitment to, a need for, or
a willingness to use the skills they have learned, those skills will be of little value either to
the students or to society. All this underlines the connections among the four main goals
of a social studies education; although we may speak of each one separately, we must not
forget their inherent interrelationships.
What Is Social Studies?
Given the importance of social studies for all students, what knowledge and skills
should be taught in the elementary schools? What should be the appropriate content or
defining attributes of social studies? Where does one start since there are thousands of
possible social studies topics ranging from ancient civilization to present day energy
issues? There are two main approaches: the social studies approach and the singlediscipline
approach. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS), established in 1921, is the national
professional organization of teachers concerned about social studies. The national organization
publishes Social Education and, for the elementary grades, Social Studies and the Young
Learner. In addition, NCSS also has many state and regional councils. Most state councils
also publish journals and newsletters for their members, in addition to holding annual conferences.
NCSS is the major advocate for the teaching of social studies, and along with the state
councils tries to influence legislation concerning social studies. Your membership in NCSS
and your state or regional council could help your professional development; they would
welcome your membership. In 1992, NCSS adopted its integrated definition of the field.
Social studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic
competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic
study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography,
history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology, as well as
appropriate content from the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary
purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and
reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society
in an interdependent world.1
In 2010, NCSS (www.ncss.org) revised its older 1994 standards, reaffirming its commitment to
an integrated social studies approach drawing content from seven disciplines and three broadly
based themes. These revised standards maintained the ten major curriculum themes basic to
social studies learning (Table 1.1). These Ten Themes are curriculum standards to select content
for the K–12 social studies program, while also including four main skills: (1) literacy,
(2) critical thinking, (3) learning strategies (decision making, inquiry learning, etc.), (4) personal
interaction and civic engagement strategies. In addition, the report contained a sharper focus
on purposes, questions for exploration, knowledge, processes, and products. The ten themes
stress using broad, multidisciplinary areas of learning in teaching social studies, not
just a single discipline. However, they are not content standards that provide a detailed
description of content and methodology. As shown in Figure 1.2, NCSS advocates a powerful
and meaningful form of social studies teaching and learning.
In contrast to NCSS’s social studies integrated approach, the single-discipline approach
believes that the content focus should be a single discipline such as history in which students
will learn both important content in the field and the methods used by scholars (historians in
this case) in researching their field of knowledge. The single-discipline approach probably
has more supporters in the middle and high schools. There teachers may identify themselves
as “ I teach history” or “I am an econ teacher” rather than identifying themselves as a social
Ta b l e 1 . 1
The Ten Themes of the National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies
Seven themes that are based on the major concepts of history and the social sciences:
1. Culture (anthropology)
2. Time, continuity, and change (history)
3. People, places, and environment (geography)
4. Individual development and identity (psychology)
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions (sociology)
6. Power, authority, and governance (political science)
7. Production, distribution, and consumption (economics)
Three themes that are broadly based and include many subject areas:
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practice
F i g u r e 1 . 2 NCSS’s Powerful Social Studies Paradigm
issues and controversies
Connects to students’
own experiences; is
Uses thought-stimulating inquiry assignments
What Is in a Name?
In real practice, a considerable overlap exists between the social studies approach and the
single-discipline approach. Both models have as their main goal the development of informed,
responsible, active citizens. Both approaches emphasize history. Even in the social
studies approach, history is typically used as the organizing framework for instruction.
Equal time is not given to the other social sciences.
Both approaches advocate that improvement should be made in the teaching of social
studies. Therefore, what actually goes on in the classroom is probably more important than
the label used. However, this text will generally use the term social studies except in specific
discussions of subject areas.
Interpreting the Goal of Civic Education
At a general level everyone espouses civic education, but individuals and groups vary on
their definition of civic education and what a good citizen does. Robert Barr, a social studies
educator, and his colleagues defined the first three main social studies traditions, shown in
Table 1.2. Note that all the approaches emphasize the broad goal of citizenship education
but differ on how to achieve this goal.
In a more recent analysis of civic education approaches, Westheimer and Kahne2 outlined
three main conceptions of the “good” citizen.
1. personally responsible citizen—more the character education approach
2. participatory citizen—active member of the community
3. justice-oriented citizen—critically assesses structures
Note that each of these conceptions differs on what skills and values students need to
become good citizens.
You can see now that definitions of social studies content will vary depending on the value
system or philosophical orientation of the teacher or curriculum planner. The citizenshiptransmission
approach tends to emphasize U.S. history and our nation’s high ideals and achievements. The social science/history approach uses content from the various social science disciplines and history with a view to understanding the major concepts and the respective methods of research. The reflectiveinquiry
and social-justice approaches use almost any content as long as it encourages thinking on the part
of students. In addition, the social-justice approach emphasizes students taking action. The child-centered
approach focuses on personal development. Advocates of global and multicultural education also want
their approaches to be considered as major goals of the social studies.
What Should Be Taught? National Standards and State Standards 7
What Should Be Taught? National Standards
For the past thirty years or so, many parents and critics have felt that the public schools are
not making the grade in terms of student achievement. They are aware of international reports
of the low ranking of U.S. students in science and math literacy, causing them to worry
whether our young people will be able to compete in the global economy. In addition, the
continued achievement gap between the higher scores of White and Asian American students
as compared to African American and Hispanic students is also a great concern.
Responding to the public’s demand for reform, the use of standards—what teachers
are supposed to teach and students are expected to know (content standards) and be able to
do (performance standards)—has been advocated. Standards can help both teachers and
students to be clear about their purposes in developing explicit goals for learning. Students
can find standards helpful when teachers spell out criteria for high-quality work, explain
how the work will be assessed, and give examples of what the work looks like. Students
then have a better idea of what to do and how to do it. When goals and expectations are very
clear, more students can meet them. Standards also can address the issue of discrepancy
in what is actually taught by different teachers. Within the same school and next door to
each other in the same grade, teachers can vary tremendously in what content and skills are
taught in various subject areas.
From National Social Studies Standards
to State Standards
In addition to the NCSS standards published in 1994 (later revised in 2010), organizations
in four subject areas—history, geography, civics and economics—also produced standards
for their respective fields (see Chapters 5–8 for more discussion). However, in 1994–1995,
Approach Goals of Civic Education
1. Citizenship transmission Students are taught traditional knowledge and values
as a framework for making decisions.
2. Social science/history Students master social science/history concepts,
generalizations, and methods.
3. Reflective inquiry Students use knowledge and thinking to make decisions
and to solve problems.
4. Social justice Students develop understanding and skills needed
to critique and transform society; often a focus on
5. Child-centered Students develop a positive self-concept and a strong
sense of personal efficacy.
Ta b l e 1 . 2 Different Approaches to Civic Education
a proposed first set of national history standards, funded by the federal government, engendered
a fierce national controversy, with critics complaining about anti-European bias and
an emphasis on negative aspects of U.S. history (Chapter 5). The political outcry over the
proposed national history standards ended any possibility of national consensus on history
standards at that time. In addition, concerns about federal control of education shifted the
development of standards to the states. Forty-eight states then developed their own social
studies standards, often built on a compilation of national standards developed by NCSS and
the four subject areas—history, civics, geography, and economics. These state social studies
standards varied greatly, with critics finding a majority of state standards faulty in being too
broad, too low in expectations, and too poorly written to be really useful to teachers and students.
Changing States’ Roles and NCLB
By 2001, both President George W. Bush and Congress were not satisfied with the progress
the states had made. State standards were especially failing four subgroups of students:
those from low-income families, minority students, English learners (ELs), and students
with disabilities. A bipartisan Congress then passed the Elementary and Secondary Education
Act (ESEA), the largest reform act in a quarter century. ESEA is commonly known as
No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its commitment to standards-based reform.
Through NCLB, all schools were to be held to high, measurable standards set by the
individual states to raise student achievement for all groups. The NCLB Act mandated
broad accountability, requiring all states to test children in grades 3–8 in reading, math, and
science. Furthermore, schools failing to achieve specific performance targets faced serious
sanctions, including providing vouchers to parents for out-of-school programs and eventually
replacing the school staff or converting failing schools to charter schools.
This ambitious act required states to establish their own annual tests aligned with their
own state standards. Standards were to be clear, with measurable goals focused on basic
skills and essential knowledge. This has resulted in great diversity among state standards
and what a given state considers to be proficient students.
Examples of State Social Studies Standards
Let us examine two different states’ standards for the second grade—Massachusetts (Table 1.3)
and California (Table 1.4)—to illustrate both the similarities and differences between different
state standards. Both states’ social studies standards received high ratings compared
Second graders study world and United States history, geography, economics, and government by learning
more about who Americans are and where they came from. They explore their own family’s history and listen
to or read of a variety of teacher- or student-selected stories about: distinctive individuals, peoples, achievements,
customs, events, places, or landmarks from long ago and around the world. Students learn more economic
concepts by identifying producers, consumers, buyers, and sellers in their own communities.
GRADE 2 CONCEPTS AND SKILLS
Students should be able to:
Apply concepts and skills learned in previous grades.
Ta b l e 1 . 3
Grade Two E Pluribus Unum: From Many One
Source: Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework (Malden, MA: Massachusetts Department of
Elementary & Secondary Education, 2003), 17–18. Reprinted by permission of the Massachusetts Department of
Elementary and Secondary Education.
Ta b l e 1 . 3 (Continued)
History and Geography
1. Use a calendar to identify days, weeks, months, years, and seasons. (H)
2. Use correct words and phases related to time (now, in the past, in the future), changing historical periods
(other times, other places), and causation (because, reasons). (H)
3. Order events in the student’s life (e.g., the year he or she was born, started school, or moved to a new
neighborhood) or in the history of countries studied. (H)
4. Describe how maps and globes depict geographical information in different ways. (G)
5. Read globes and maps and follow narrative accounts using them. (G, H)
Civics and Government
6. Define and give examples of some of the rights and responsibilities that students as citizens have in the school
(e.g., student have the right to vote in a class election and have the responsibility to follow school rules). (C)
7. Give examples of fictional characters or real people in the school or community who were good leaders
and good citizens, and explain the qualities that made them admirable (e.g., honesty, dependability,
modesty, trustworthiness, courage). (C)
8. Give examples of people in the school and community who are both producers and consumers. (E)
9. Explain what buyers and sellers are and give examples of goods and services that are bought and sold in
their community. (E)
GRADE 2 LEARNING STANDARDS
Building on knowledge from previous years, students should be able to:
2.1 On a map of the world, locate all of the continents: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa,
Australia, and Antarctica. (G)
2.2 Locate the current boundaries of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. (G)
2.3 Locate the oceans of the world: Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. (G)
2.4 Locate five major rivers in the world: the Mississippi, Amazon, Volga, Yangtze, and Nile. (G)
2.5 Locate major mountains or mountain ranges in the world such as the Andes, Alps, Himalayas, Mt.
Everest, Mt. McKinley, and the Rocky Mountains. (G)
2.6 Explain the difference between a continent and a country and give examples of each. (G)
2.7 On a map of the world, locate the continent, regions, or then the countries from which students, their
parents, guardians, grandparents, or other relatives or ancestors came. With the help of family
members and the school librarian, describe traditional food, customs, sports and games, and the music
of the place they came from. (G, C)
2.8 With the help of the school librarian, give examples of traditions or customs from other countries that
can be found in America today. (G, C)
2.9 With the help of the school librarian, identify and describe well-known sites, events, or landmarks in at least
three different countries from which students’ families come and explain why they are important. ( H, G, C)
2.10 After reading or listening to a variety of true stories about individuals recognized for their
achievements, describe and compare different ways people have achieved great distinction
(e.g., scientific, professional, political, religious, commercial, military, athletic, or artistic). (H)
Ta b l e 1 . 4 California—Grade Two: People Who Make a Difference
2.1 Students differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened yesterday.
(A History Standard)
1. Trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources, including artifacts,
photographs, interviews, and documents.
2. Compare and contrast their daily lives with those of their parents, grandparents, and/or guardians.
3. Place important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred (e.g., on a time line or
2.2 Students demonstrate map skills by describing the absolute and relative locations of people, places,
and environments. (A Geography Standard)
1. Locate on a simple letter–number grid system the specific locations and geographic features in their
neighborhood or community (e.g., map of the classroom, the school).
2. Label from memory a simple map of the North American continent, including the countries, oceans,
Great Lakes, major rivers, and mountain ranges. Identify the essential map elements: title, legend,
directional indicator, scale, and date.
3. Locate on a map where their ancestors live(d), telling when the family moved to the local community
and how and why they made the trip.
4. Compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and rural environments in California.
2.3 Students explain governmental institutions and practices in the United States and other countries.
(A Civics Standard)
1. Explain how the United States and other countries make laws, carry out laws, determine whether
laws have been violated, and punish wrongdoers.
2. Describe the ways in which groups and nations interact with one another to try to resolve problems
in such areas as trade, cultural contacts, treaties, diplomacy, and military force.
2.4. Students understand basic economic concepts and their individual roles in the economy and
demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills. (An Economic Standard)
1. Describe food production and consumption long ago and today, including the roles of farmers,
processors, distributors, weather, and land and water resources.
2. Understand the role and interdependence of buyers (consumers) and sellers (producers) of goods
3. Understand how limits on resources affect production and consumption (what to produce and what
2.5 Students understand the importance of individual action and character and explain how heroes from
long ago and the recent past have made a difference in others’ lives (e.g., from biographies of Abraham
Lincoln, Louis Pasteur, Sitting Bull, XXXXX XXXXX Carver, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Golda Meir,
XXXXX XXXXX, Sally Ride). (An Ethical, Value Standard)
Source: History–Social Science Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve,
Updated Edition (Sacramento, CA: California State Department of Education, 2001), 46–47. Reprinted by permission of
the California Department of Education, CDE Press,XXXXX Suite 3705, Sacramento, CA 95814.
to other states, partly due to their clarity and being detailed enough to be useful for implementation
by teachers. In the Massachusetts standards, the initial after the standard indicates
subject matter, such as H for history, G for geography, C for civics and government, and E
Elementary Social Studies: A Practical Guide, Eighth Edition, by June R. Chapin. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Race to the Top and Common Core State Standards 11
Although the goals of NCLB were beyond reproach in drawing attention to the wide
disparities in student achievement and holding districts responsible for raising achievement
for all children, mounting opposition arose in the implementation of NCLB. Here were
some of the common complaints:
The curriculum has been narrowed with more time spent only on reading/language
arts and math.
Far too many schools are punished just because one subgroup failed to meet the
It is unrealistic to expect students with disabilities and ELs to perform up to par.
There is too much testing and only one big annual test to measure student progress.
States vary greatly on what they call “proficient” and often have low standards for
acceptable student achievement.
A public label of failure discourages teachers and their students.
Funds have not been provided for adequate implementation of NCLB provisions.
Race to the Top and Common
Core State Standards
By 2009, President Obama’s Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, was well aware of
the negatives about NCLB and the need to revise it. Arne Duncan wanted to eliminate the
extreme variation in standards across the states, starting with reading and math. He said
that having “50 different goal posts is absolutely ridiculous.” A major step by President
Obama’s administration was the competition, the Race to the Top (RttT), using $4.35 billion
in stimulus money to cash-strapped states to get them to adopt certain reform ideas.
In 2010, forty-six states and the District of Columbia entered the Race to the Top competition.
States received more points if their blueprint for a reform agenda met the priorities
set forth in Race to the Top: adoption of common core academic standards for their state,
aiding lowest-performing schools, expanding charter schools, providing a data system to
plot how individual students progress to aid instruction, and the controversial judging of
teacher effectiveness based on student test scores.
Small Group Work 1.2
Compare the Two State Standards for Grade Two
What are the similarities? In what area(s) do these similarities occur?
What are the differences? What set of standards would probably have
the highest interest for students? In terms of necessary teacher background,
which set of standards would be easier to teach? Which set of
standards has the most coherence—an organizational structure over time and space? Is there
a content overload for second graders?
Check the social studies standards and state assessment (if any) of your state. These are
usually available on the Internet. Search by using your state’s name followed by Department
of Education (e.g., Alabama Department of Education) or Department of Public Instruction
(e.g., Delaware Department of Public Instruction). In a few cases the title may be different
(e.g., Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning). ●
12 Chapter 1 / The Elementary Social Studies Curriculum
Common Core State Standards
By 2009, the movement toward common core national standards was aided by the Common
Core State Standards Initiative formed by a merger of expert panels of the National
Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. The purpose of their
standards is to “help prepare students with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed
in college and careers and to be prepared to compete globally.” In other words, these two
“Cs” standards (college and career-work preparedness) were designed with the idea of
where students would end up at the end of the twelfth grade. They included a progression
of knowledge of a subject area across grade levels and the application of information in
complex and higher-order settings (skills or cognitive strategies).
In June 2010, the Common Core State Standards Initiative (www.corestandards.org)
released their standards for English language arts and reading (ELAR) and math for K–12.
Common core state science standards are also presently being designed. The aim was fewer,
clearer, and higher standards with an additional 15 percent of the content left to each state.
The English language arts and reading report also included standards for literacy in history/
social studies, grades 6–12, since students need to read, write, speak, listen, and use language
effectively in the content areas (more in Chapter 10). The standards of the Common
Core State Standards Initiative were called voluntary common standards because the phrase
“national standards” raises issues about state and local control and especially the idea that
national testing might follow the adoption of national standards.
Assessments of the Common Core State Standards
At least forty-four states made a commitment to these common standards in English
language arts and math, often motivated because they wanted to win in the Race to the Top
competition. In 2010, two assessment consortia were awarded funds by the U.S. Office
of Education to develop assessments for the Common Core State Standards. One is the
Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). This is a
consortium of twenty-six states, and they are designing yearly assessments for grades 3–8,
and at least once in grades 10–12, including English learners and students with disabilities.
One feature of their assessment is that students meeting the college and career readiness
standards will be eligible for placement into entry-level credit-bearing, rather than remedial,
courses in public two- and four-year postsecondary institutions.
PARCC is considered to be more traditional compared to the other consortium of
thirty-one states, Smarter Balance Assessment Consortium (SBAC). Twelve states are
members of both consortia. Like PARCC, they are designing assessments for grades 3–8
and grade 11 in English and math. SBAC is focusing on using online testing and giving
more feedback, including both teacher and administrator effectiveness. Both groups have
set 2015 as the time for their assessments in English language arts and math to be available.
How soon states will be willing to abandon their own familiar state tests to use one of the
consortium’s assessments is unknown. For many states, the Common Core State Standards
compared to their own state standards have a greater emphasis on higher-order cognitive
demand. A shift to Common Core State Standards will require many teachers to spend less
emphasis on memorization. Critics also worry that a top-down approach to change will not
be successful. However, it is recognized that it will be years before these common standards
can make their way into the classroom. Textbooks, technologies, and teacher professional
development have to be aligned to these new common standards. Only then will some states
even consider using the assessments developed by either of the two consortia. Cost analysis
may also play a role. Presently, states are paying fees for publishers or organizations such as
Education Testing Services to develop their own state standards assessments.
Even Higher Standards Needed? 21st Century Skills 13
However, getting consensus on national common standards in social studies will be more
difficult than in language arts/reading and math. Nevertheless, NCSS along with many other
state agencies and organizations are trying to develop common core standards for the social
studies (www.socialstudies.org/CommonCore). They want a third C—civic education—along
with the other two, college and career. It is thought by many that unless there are national
standards in social studies, there may be a continual decline in the amount of time spent on
social studies, especially in the primary grades and in schools with low test scores as teachers
cut back on subjects that are not tested such as social studies, art, music, and foreign languages.
Status of No Child Left Behind (ESEA)
Even though Republicans gained control of the House of Representatives in 2011, many
Republicans backed President Obama’s priorities for the reauthorization of the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act, which had authorized the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Here are some of the Obama administration’s education objectives for this reauthorization:
Maintain the annual testing requirement with reports by race and other categories to
ensure that these groups are not overlooked and neglected by school districts
Judge students and teachers on growth in student achievement over a school year
instead of the number of proficient students in each grade (value-added/growth assessment
discussed in Chapter 4)
Vigorous state intervention for failing schools (bottom 5 to 10 percent), majority of
schools left alone, top achievement schools could receive rewards or recognition
All students should graduate from high school prepared for college or a career
More charter schools, common standards, and teacher incentives such as merit pay
When legislation stalled on revising NCLB in 2011, President Obama proposed that
states could ask for a waiver from certain tenets of NCLB if the states agreed to meet a new
set of standards. There are three major requirements for this waiver. One, the waiver calls
for evaluating teachers and principals based on the results of student test scores. Second,
the state must set high achievement standards. Third, the states must develop strategies for
the worst performing schools.
Even Higher Standards Needed?
21st Century Skills
While the debate continues on both the national and state levels on what should be done
about the schools, a high profile group of education, business, and political leaders believe
that just aiming for common core standards is a meager beginning.
Globalization requires much greater changes for all schools. In their report, the
National Center on Education and the Economy, a nonprofit group partly financed by the
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation plus other foundations, urged an even more drastic redesign
of the American K–12 public schools to make the nation more competitive globally.3
For the 21st century, students need to be competent in traditional academic disciplines but
also know more about the world, become smarter about new sources of information, and
3National Center on Education and the Economy, Tough Choices or Tough Times: The Report of the New Commission
on the Skills of the American Workforce (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2006).
14 Chapter 1 / The Elementary Social Studies Curriculum
develop good people skills, as well as being able to think outside the box. Necessary skills
include being able to work with small groups as well as being able to work alone with selfmanagement.
Thus, there is a key emphasis on critical thinking, analytical ability, technology
skills, creativity, collaboration, and communication.
The National Council of the Social Studies joined Partnership for 21st Century Skills
or P21 (www.21stcenturyskills.org), the nation’s leading organization focusing on infusing
21st Century Skills into the curriculum. Achieving these skills, such as information, media,
and technology skills, and life and career skills, requires teachers and schools to shift to
greater use of new technology and employ more effective approaches such as cooperative
learning, teaching for transfer, project-based learning, and real-world teaching contexts.
Check out the Partnership’s website for examples of social studies lessons and activities
consistent with the philosophy of P21.
Middle School Reform?
Middle schools are very important. They are the last best chance to get students on track to
be able to survive and to graduate from high school. Low achievement scores at the beginning
of ninth grade are often a predictor of which students will drop out of high school.
There is limited value in talking about 21st century skills if middle schools are in an achievement
slump as measured by achievement tests. Part of the problem of middle schools is
that concepts in academic areas, especially math, become increasingly difficult and more
abstract. American fourth graders’ achievement is fine in comparison with international
scores, but by the eighth grade they are falling behind, and high school achievement scores
continue to plummet drastically. However, American data from multiple sources such as
NAEP indicate that American students may be gaining at the pre/primary level in reading
and math, holding at the middle school level, but falling behind at the high school level.4
This raises the question of whether middle schools are sufficiently focused on academic
achievement. Many middle schools throughout the nation are trying to improve
achievement by providing all students with topics in algebra and geometry, laboratorybased
science, weekly writing in all classes, and extensive reading. Reform ideas for the
social studies as well as other subjects include differentiated instruction, looping (where
the teacher follows the same group of students through several grades), students being volunteers,
service learning, creating safe and secure schools to avoid all forms of bullying,
and less impersonal schools to avoid the loss of self-esteem. There are real challenges in
reaching middle grade students who, compared with elementary and high school students,
are more likely to be bored in school and doubtful about their ability to succeed. Given the
challenges, the debate on how to make middle schools academically excellent while being
developmentally responsive will likely continue for many years.
What Are the National Curriculum Patterns?
The United States has thousands of local school districts. Although each one is autonomous
and can organize a curriculum to suit its own needs and meet state requirements, a national
social studies curriculum exists. There are two reasons for this. First is the dominant role
4Jackyung Lee, “Tripartite Growth Trajectories of Reading and Math Achievement: Tracking National Academic
Progress at Primary, Middle, and High School Levels,” American Educational Research Journal 47, no. 6
(December 2010), 826.
What Are the National Curriculum Patterns? 15
that textbooks have had in social studies instruction. In fifth- and eighth-grade classrooms
across the nation, you will find in some form U.S. history being taught from books published
by only a handful of large companies. About five probably control nearly 90 percent
of the textbook market, which ensures a certain similarity in course offerings throughout the
nation. Second, most teachers follow guidelines produced by their state. In the past some
state standards and frameworks were very broad, requiring only that history, geography, and
the social sciences be taught in some manner from kindergarten through twelfth grade. The
recent trend with standards-based reform is to provide standards with considerable detail
for each or some grades.
State standards and frameworks in turn influence textbook publishers, who want as
broad a market as possible. State frameworks of the largest states, particularly California
and Texas, help to determine what focus textbooks have. For these interrelated reasons, we
see a certain amount of uniformity in elementary social studies programs throughout the
nation (Table 1.5).
A careful reading of Table 1.5 reveals some problems in the widely accepted social
studies curriculum. Notice first that U.S. history is typically taught at three grade levels.
Frequently, these three courses repeat everything from Columbus to the latest crisis with
little differentiation of content. This sequence came about when, historically, children first
only attended school for a few years, then later most just graduated from elementary school,
and now most graduate from high school. It was thought to be important that before leaving
school everyone should have a U.S. history course. To avoid this duplication of content,
more states are now dividing the emphasis of the chronological periods of U.S. history in
the fifth, eighth, and eleventh grades with the fifth grade concentrating on the making of a
new nation, the eighth grade focusing more on the Constitution and the 19th century, and
the eleventh grade on more recent times.
Grade Level Course Offerings/Topics
Self, family, school
State history, geographic regions
U.S. history (often early period), culture, geography
World history, geography
U.S. history, often 19th century
Much variation, civics moving to the twelfth grade
U.S. history, often 20th century and beyond
U.S. government, economics; elective psychology
Ta b l e 1 . 5
Course Offerings/Topics in Social Studies
Notice this repetition is also true of the world history course, and in particular
there is little agreement on content for the sixth and seventh grades. Similar to what is
happening in U.S. history, some states are dividing content with ancient civilizations in
the sixth grade, medieval and early modern times in the seventh grade, and the modern
world in the eleventh grade. Thus, although it appears that the national social studies
curriculum patterns have been stable for decades, some states have been gradually
Too Much Repetition in the Primary Grades?
Similar to the problems of a lack of differentiation of U.S. history and world history,
some social studies educators believe that the primary-grade topics are not sufficiently
differentiated. The content is thin and redundant—repeating families and communities
several times. Too often the textbook content is already known by students or likely to
be learned through everyday experiences. Topics are stressed in the first, second, and
third grades without new material being introduced or higher levels of thinking being
In particular, Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy, in their many publications, call for retaining
most of the topics of the traditional elementary social studies curriculum but putting
the emphasis on the fundamentals of the human condition5 called cultural universals,
the dimensions of human life that are found in all human cultures, both the past and the
present.6 The focus is on a child’s present understanding, and in many cases misunderstandings,
of these essential important concepts. For the primary grades (K–3), the following
units contain the powerful ideas for the curriculum: food, clothing, and shelter (Book 1);
communication, transportation, and family living (Book 2); and childhood, money, and
government (Book 3).
This organization of these units not only connects better with students’ prior knowledge
and experiences but allows these topics to be examined in depth. Thus, the unit on
shelter goes beyond just showing photos and video clips on the various types of shelter
found throughout the world. Students can examine whether their families own or rent their
homes along with the advantages and disadvantages of each. If their parents/guardians own
their own home, are children aware that most likely there is a mortgage? Or students can
examine how homes and apartments that are being built in their neighborhood take into
account the location and climate of the area. As you can see, these activities draw on all of
the academic disciplines, such as economics and geography, and avoid the often superficial
coverage of the family and the community.
The Holiday Curriculum
But perhaps the heaviest criticism of primary social studies content focuses on the
“holiday curriculum.” In many schools, holidays such as Thanksgiving, Christmas,
6Jere Brophy and Janet Alleman, Children’s Thinking about Cultural Universals (Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum
Associates Inc., 2006).
5Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy, Social Studies Excursions, K–3. Book One: Powerful Units on Food, Clothing,
and Shelter (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 200l). Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy, Social Studies Excursions, K–3.
Book Two: Powerful Units on Communication, Transportation, and Family Living (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann,
2002). Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy, Social Studies Excursions, K–3. Book Three: Power Units on Childhood,
Money, and Government (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003).
What Are the National Curriculum Patterns? 17
Presidents Day, Valentine’s Day, Easter, and Mother’s Day dictate what is covered
in the primary social studies program. These holidays do offer the opportunity
to explain much about our cultural heritage, but reliance on them suggests that many
teachers feel more comfortable teaching these topics than ones that require more
The holiday curriculum, however, need not be narrow. Holidays can be used as
springboards for teaching about cultural diversity by showing how they are celebrated (or
not celebrated) in this country and throughout the world. Too often, the holidays turn into
arts and crafts projects. For example, for Thanksgiving, to go beyond pilgrim hats and
turkey hands, Christie and Montgomery recommend: a focus on (l) present-day pilgrims,
refugees seeking freedom; (2) how Thanksgiving became a national holiday (it was not
always a national holiday); (3) diverse celebrations with different kinds of foods and
discussions about where the food, languages, and cultural traditions come from; and
(4) extending the canned food drive with more depth about who the hungry are.7 In
many cases, though, holiday activities are simply repeated grade after grade, with little
attention paid to learning beyond entertainment. Valuable social studies time is wasted.
Furthermore, teachers are not always sensitive to the feelings of children from different
backgrounds who may be offended or excluded by the holiday focus. In the same manner,
children may not understand why particular religious holidays are not mentioned or
are celebrated in ways unrelated to their religious meanings. The separation of church
and state in the United States means that children may learn about different religions but
religious beliefs may not be practiced in the classroom.
As you can see, there is a national social studies curriculum pattern. But your state’s
pattern may vary from this model in several ways. Each state generally requires that its
own state history be taught at the fourth-grade level. Check on what your state recommends
for the sixth- and seventh-grade levels as well. Information about social studies
content guidelines can be obtained from your state department of education and the
Internet. Your state may also have legal requirements—observance of holidays, positive
and accurate portrayal of the roles of women and minority groups, or the protection and
conservation of the environment—that dictate to some extent what will be taught in the
Scope and Sequence
Almost all elementary social studies textbooks use what is often called the expanding
communities pattern or the expanding horizons or widening world scope and sequence
model. All three terms are used interchangeably. Scope refers to the list of topics covered
in a program. Sequence is the order in which these topics are covered. Usually, the two
words are used together to indicate what is being taught, whether in the social studies or in
any other area of the curriculum.
Scope and sequence issues are important. You need to know when students are ready
for certain difficult concepts, such as time or chronology. Most primary students have great
difficulty trying to imagine what life was like 2,000 years ago. They may think that we
have always had television, airplanes, and cars. The eras designated by b.c. and a.d. pose
7Erica M. Christie and Sarah E. Montgomery, “Beyond Pilgrim Hats and Turkey Hands: Using Thanksgiving to
Promote Citizenship and Activism,” Social Studies and the Young Learner 23, no. 1 (September/October 2010),
18 Chapter 1 / The Elementary Social Studies Curriculum
conceptual difficulty for most primary students. Determining at what grade level you might
successfully try to teach time concepts is a scope and sequence issue.
The traditional scope and sequence pattern for the elementary grades—the expanding
communities—is based on a consideration of the developmental needs of the child.
Children usually learn better about real things and life around them than about abstract
topics that they cannot see or feel. Therefore, the expanding communities concept begins
where children are when they enter school. The focus in the primary grades is first the
self, then families, communities, cities, the region, and finally the nation and the world
This pattern of expanding communities made a lot of sense years ago. But now, with
computers, mass media, and especially television, children are exposed to events and issues
taking place far from their homes. Children also travel more. Primary-grade children
are aware of international relationships and domestic crises, wars, terrorism, and pollution
problems. They come to school with a greater knowledge of the world and a far wider range
of interests than the expanding horizons curriculum envisioned.
Critics believe that the expanding horizons curriculum does not present an accurate
view of the interrelationships among the different communities (e.g., family, local community,
state, nation, and world). It may also discourage using current and controversial
events that take place outside of the community being studied. For critics, the focus on the
here and now can be replaced with other learning experiences if children can connect with
the topic through personal experience or interest.
One older alternative pattern is the spiral curriculum. In this model, basic concepts
and processes from the social sciences such as interdependence or cultural change are
taught each year on a higher level of abstraction. For example, first-grade students might
learn how families depend on one another for natural resources and manufactured goods.
By the fourth grade, they might study the first pioneer families that settled in their state.
Care must be taken in using this pattern to ensure that the topics are truly moving to higher
levels and not just repeating topics such as “community workers” or “food.” The spiral curriculum
can be used to support the rationale for repeating U.S. history three times—each
time it is taught at a more complex and more meaningful level. The NCSS ten learning
themes are also an example of a spiral curriculum.
F i g u r e 1 . 3 The Expanding Horizons Curriculum
Source: Robert D. Barr, James L. Barth, and Samuel Shermis, Defining the Social Studies, Bulletin 51. Reprinted
with permission of the National Council for the Social Studies.
K Self and Others
5 United States and Canada
Why Are Textbooks and Technology Important? 19
Why Are Textbooks and Technology Important?
Social studies textbooks are often the most valuable resource that a teacher has. Critics
have complained about the over-reliance on the textbook resulting in a narrow program.
Sometimes it has been the teacher’s only instructional tool, ignoring the school library/
media resource center, computer resources, and community resources such as guest speakers
and field trips. In addition, given the wide range of reading abilities within a classroom
with the same textbook for every single student, many students have found social studies
textbooks far too difficult for them to read and to understand.
Reading the social studies textbook with its core content is probably the most typical
and common social studies activity in most classrooms. In addition, many of the social
studies activities are textbook driven since publishers may give away a lot of free material—
workbooks, tests, and the like—with each purchase of a set of classroom books or sell the
materials at a reasonable price. In effect, the textbook with its auxiliary materials becomes
the social studies program. And for many busy elementary teachers, the textbook program
is a boon for them.
Textbooks have changed. Reflecting the standards and reform movement, elementary
social studies textbooks are often organized around big ideas, questions, and concepts.
Many states have organized their social studies into four major areas: history, geography,
civic education, and economics. Following these standards, the K–3 textbooks may have
six major units or sections, with four concentrating on these four disciplines. Usually one
section is devoted to geography. Although not using the word economics, another section
may concentrate on such topics as workers. A third section may be on the past or long ago
(history), with a fourth on civic life in the community and in the nation. By the fourth grade
on, the concentration is on history. In large states, the state standard may actually be written
for each unit/section in the student’s textbook to ensure that students are more aware of the
purpose as they read.
Textbooks now have more primary and secondary sources embedded in them that allow
for more than one perspective as well as more biographies. Social studies textbooks are also
colorful, with countless maps, artwork, charts, illustrations, cartoons, and the like. Furthermore,
more skill lessons are found inside the textbook. This is especially true for reading,
with vocabulary builders and lessons using questions, skills, summaries, and writing to
make sure that students truly interact and process the content in multiple ways. There are
also links to online resources, often directed to the publisher’s site for additional information
on topics and issues and online learning centers with additional content, quizzes, and
games. Along with a color-coded teacher’s edition, there frequently is a CD-ROM or DVD
including a lesson planner, every print resource and transparency, editable worksheets, and
a calendar. There may be links to streaming videos and smart board capabilities.
The teacher’s edition usually includes detailed lesson plans, questions, discussion topics,
informal assessments, suggested activities for the wide range of students, and Internet
resources with primary sources including documents, images, maps, and more. Often help
for English learners (ELs) is highlighted or a Spanish textbook edition is available. Supplementary
material can also include many types of workbooks and test questions for formally
testing each grade, with a set of literature books, videos, software for independent reading,
games, atlases and various types of maps, and letters to be sent home to parents/guardians
explaining each unit along with beginning- and end-of-year letters. Especially for the upper
grades, the supplementary material may include an interactive notebook, reproducible lesson
masters, and student handouts as well as DVDs.
In addition, large publishers offer a series (often called a basal series) of textbooks and
related supplementary/auxiliary material from kindergarten through grades 6 or 7. Many
20 Chapter 1 / The Elementary Social Studies Curriculum
school districts purchase the whole series for many grade levels so that there will be continuity
and coherence across the grades. Furthermore, publishers want to get their textbooks
adopted in such large states as California and Texas as well as big-city urban districts. This has
increased the attention devoted to diversity in all forms—gender, racial, ethnic, and the like.
Time to Switch to eBooks or Digital Textbooks?
More attention is being given by both libraries and teachers on whether to use ebooks or
traditional texts. Because of predicted growth of digital readers, libraries are now facing
decisions on how to use both their space and funds. Should there be more seating, less
shelving, and fewer bound books and materials? How prominent should ebooks be? Presently,
teachers, like the library patrons, are firmly divided into two camps: those who like
the feel and comfort of a traditional book versus those who prefer using ebooks.
However, our digital-native students may be more willing to use digital textbooks than
some of their teachers. Although not all students prefer digital textbooks over traditional
texts, the younger generation of digital natives uses computers, Internet, cell phones, video
games, and other tools both to learn and to socialize. Technology in many forms is changing
the way we acquire and analyze information. Technology can be a pathway to improving
learning for students in our informational society. Technology can assist students both to
learn faster and to enjoy learning. Nevertheless, teachers still may have to work hard to keep
their students focused on reading an ebook in light of the flood of distractions such as texting
among young people. In addition, a textbook is still a textbook, regardless of whether
it is online or in its traditional format.
Publishers, especially at the middle and high school levels, are moving more into
technology for students in their programs for each grade level and in specific subject areas
such as economics. One argument in favor of digital textbooks is that they can support
individualization. Struggling readers can highlight, check main ideas, and get in-text key
vocabulary definitions and pronunciation support. For English learners, translation or language
support may be available such as text-to-audio features. The text-to-audio feature
also can be used by struggling readers. After the whole class reads a chapter, assessments
can quickly give feedback to the teacher on student comprehension for the whole class
or individuals to see if they have mastered the content. This points out what topics may
need reinforcement or which students need special help. A social studies digital textbook
can also be updated more easily, and this is especially important for economics textbooks.
However, unless the digital textbook can truly differentiate the content level, such as of a
seventh-grade text to a fourth-grade reading level, the digital textbooks may not be much
better than present-day social studies textbooks. The publisher has the capacity to change
reading levels, but it is cheaper to use just one text-to-audio feature instead of producing
several different reading levels.
Publishers are highlighting technology to promote student learning by teaching more
and having the teacher spend less time grading. Among some of these features are:
Teacher planning—create and deliver assignments easily with selectable end-ofchapter
questions and test bank material to assign online
Grading—automatically score assignments, giving students immediate feedback
with correct answers
Student progress tracking—view scored work immediately and track students’ grade
Student study center or enrichment activities—offer students quick access to practice
material and additional personalized lesson plans
Should Values and Character Education Be Taught? 21
You, other teachers, and school districts are decision makers. Whether to use ebooks is
more of an issue at the middle and high school levels, but it is expected to move down to the
upper elementary grades. What is best? The promise of a digital textbook program? Or the
print social studies textbook with auxiliaries? One alternative is to coordinate the traditional
print textbooks with technology, such having a class blog or communication and collaboration
with other classrooms, both far and near. In this
way, the teacher hopes to get the best advantages of
the two choices. Teachers and districts may also have
to weigh carefully what alternative is best for them
financially since the school will usually not “own” the
digital textbooks but will pay fees each year for the
class using the publisher’s technology program. Your
state may also offer free digital textbooks without all
of the publisher’s convenient features. Many experts
predict heavy usage of digital textbooks in the future.
A well-thought-out social studies program with all the
auxiliary pieces in place may be easier for teachers to
implement in their classrooms and to keep track of
Should Values and Character
Education Be Taught?
The broad values that teachers believe are important for students to learn have not changed
in recent years. They include democratic beliefs such as freedom of speech and worship,
as well as more personal values such as honesty and courtesy. Most teachers also want
students to respect themselves and others, work hard, be responsible, try their best, XXXXX XXXXX
give up. As with different perspectives on teaching civic education, there are also different
approaches to teaching values, strongly held standards or criteria we use in making judgments
about people, places, and things. To teach values, elementary and middle schools
may provide character and moral education to teach students both to identify and to
practice “good values” such as honesty, respect for others, caring, kindness, cooperation
with others, and the like. These programs reflect a movement to socialize the nation’s youth
and to try to correct and to help those who are harming themselves and others. For example,
bullying may be the impetus for a character education approach in the schools. Social studies
character education may stress civic education with an emphasis on knowledge and
willingness to be engaged in civic life.
Schools have always taught values and moral development through textbooks, teachers,
and school rules. Values are presented in the way teachers treat students and the way
students are allowed to treat teachers and each other. There is a hidden curriculum of
what is right and wrong, even when questions of right and wrong do not come up directly
in the classroom. Every classroom has rules that embody values. “Children should put
or store their possessions in certain places in the room.” “Raise your hand if you wish to
speak.” These rules are more than just classroom management techniques. They communicate
to children what is required to be good students. These rules teach important lessons
about authority, responsibility, caring, respect, punctuality, working in teams, and so on.
Small Group Work 1.3
Check Where You Stand
Do you think any changes should
be made in what is taught (topics)
and when it is taught (specific
grade levels)? Should there be a
greater emphasis on certain disciplines such as history?
Do you think the expanding community pattern is the
best way to organize the elementary social studies
22 Chapter 1 / The Elementary Social Studies Curriculum
You may have studied different approaches for teaching values in your psychology class.
Regardless of what approach is used for teaching values, everyone agrees that you are a
role model (see Classroom Episode on page 23). Your actions in and even out of the classroom
are carefully observed by your students. Students make judgments on whether you
really like them and whether you are fair. In effect, your behavior shows a “proper” way
to act. Thus, a teacher has been described as a moral compass pointing out to students the
appropriate direction and the way to act. All values education approaches acknowledge the
importance of the teacher as a role model. Everything you do reflects your values.
Different Values Approaches
There are many approaches to values education for the schools (Table 1.6). Indoctrination
and value analysis are discussed further in Chapter 6. Presently, multicultural education
appears to be receiving more attention, along with global education and its occasional partner,
peace education. Some schools, such as charter schools, have defined what values approach should be used in the whole school. Consensus by all on a whole school approach is probably more effective,
although measuring the success of a program is difficult since formal and informal teaching do not always translate to the desired behavior of students. But most teachers stress to students respecting self and others, working hard and trying to do our best, XXXXX XXXXX honest. Values influence how you teach. Your definition of the social studies, civic education, values education, multicultural education, controversial issues, and the like affect both how you teach and what attention and time you will give to certain topics. Many times we are not aware of how our values are acting upon our decisions.
Ta b l e 1 . 6 Approaches to Major Values Education
Approach Purpose Method
Indoctrination Values of students change in
Variety of methods, selective data
Caring (Noddings) Care for self
Care for others
Modeling, dialogue, practice, and
Moral development (Kohlberg) Students develop higher set of
Moral dilemmas, small group
discussion, teacher in devil’s advocate
Multicultural education (Banks) Cross-cultural development;
Variety of methods, experience
diversity, reflection, role playing,
Global education, peace
Cross-cultural development by
viewing global perspectives;
foster attitudes that support
Variety of methods, attention to
values, reflective learning, moral
Values clarification (Simon et al.) Students become aware of their
Students identify values of others
Variety of methods, self-analysis
Social action Students have opportunities for
social action based on their values
Projects in schools and in community
Analysis Students use logical thinking to
decide values issues
Rational discussion, research
Note: Difficulties arise when trying to place certain programs such as substance abuse approaches like the Drug Abuse
Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program, which stress self-esteem and drug-free behavior. Some would classify these
programs as indoctrination, while others would put them in the analysis approach since they may use medical research as
a data source. There is a similar problem with many of the character education approaches.
Questions asked to the teacher I interviewed.
Do you use a text book?
What is the name of the text book you use?
What do you think of the Social Studies standards?
How much time is spent on teaching Social Studies?
What do you do to keep your students interested in Social Studies?
I did my interview with a 6th grade teacher in a private school (Light House Christian Academy)
Subject taught- Social Studies/History
What they were studying lately- They are studying maps of North and South America and on those maps they had to identify Amazon river, Andes Mountains, Atacama Desert, Cape Hope, Tierra del Fuego, Strait of Magellan, Mackenzie river, St. Lawrence river, Colorado river, Rio Grande river, and the Mississippi River.
She spends about 45 minutes per day on Social Studies (12:15-1:00pm)
The textbook is called- New World: History and Geography-In Christian Perspective 4th edition.
They do follow the state standards because in order to keep their accreditation they have to follow the standards.
I’ve listed the SCOPE AND SEQUENCE for a few of the lessons for the first nine weeks of the instructional period:
First nine weeks
Lessons Text topic Geography handbook
MM/GF (maps masteries/Geography facts)
1-3 Ch1. The 1st American’s MM 1,2 and GF 1,2
And the land they found
Geography(review maps) Maps/Activities Tests Quizzes
1-3 Skills sheets(SS) 0 1
Document Memorization Current Events Geography Bowl
The American’s Creed 0 0
Lesson (L) 1-20
4-12 Unit 1: North America MM 2,3 GF 3,4
CH2: Cold lands to the North
2-6 SS 2-4 Test 1(L12) 2/3
0 0 0
The teacher’s guide has the scoop and sequence and lessons planned out by each nine weeks.
The type of textbooks they use are called Beka Book, they use a map work book as well.
As far as her instruction she has it written on the board what they will be doing for the day.
A student needed help understanding what a question was asking and the teacher instead of answering right away she gave the student a scenario and talked her through it and the student figured it out on her own with just a little guidance from the teacher.
NOTE: It was hard to sit with this teacher and interview her because she was really busy today.
Our classes are taught in a traditional method while taking advantage of the latest technology available. Our teachers are experienced and well qualified to give your student the best instruction with individual attention to their needs.
Our Preschool teaches the Abeka Curriculum. Our HomeSchool uses a variety of self-paced programs. Our on-campus Academy utilizes the Abeka from Kindergarten thru 8th grade and the Bob Jones University Press from 9th thru 12th grade. We believe your child should learn in a safe environment with a supportive staff, so that the learning process is an enjoyable experience. We stress the development of social skills, so that each child is capable of resolving problems and getting along with other students. The students are taught to respect each other and obey authority. Most of all, we want each student to learn about God and His perfect plan of salvation through His Son Jesus Christ. We believe each child is a gift from God and should be treated accordingly.
Social Studies - Sixth Grade
Content Standard: 1.0
Culture encompasses similarities and differences among people including their beliefs,
knowledge, changes, values, and traditions. Students will explore these elements of
society to develop an appreciation and respect for the variety of human cultures.
• 1.01 Understand the nature and complexity of culture.
• 1.02 Recognize the role of major religions.
• 1.03 Appreciate the relationship between physical environments and culture.
• 1.04 Recognize how cultural and individual perceptions affect places and regions.
• 1.05 Understand the role that diverse cultures and historical experiences had on
the development of the world.
• 1.06 Understand the influence of science and technology on the development of
culture through time.
6.1.01 Understand the nature and complexity of culture.
a. Define the basic components of culture.
b. Identify how communities reflect the cultural background of their inhabitants.
c. Compare how cultures differ in their use of similar environments and resources.
d. Analyze how human migration and cultural activities influence the character of a
6.1.02 Recognize the role of major religions.
a. Define religion.
b. Describe the beliefs of the world major religions.
c. Identify the founders of the world's major religions.
6.1.03 Appreciate the relationship between physical environments and culture.
a. Identify characteristics of a physical environment that contribute to the growth
and development of a culture.
b. Evaluate the effect of technology on a culture.
c. Explain why individuals and groups respond differently to their physical and
6.1.04 Recognize how cultural and individual's perceptions affect places and regions.
a. Explain how information and experiences may be interpreted differently from
people of diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference.
b. Describe instances in which language, art, music, belief systems, and other
cultural elements can facilitate understanding or cause misunderstanding.
6.1.05 Understand the role that diverse cultures and historical experiences had on the
development of the world.
a. Explain and give examples of how language, literature, the arts, architecture,
other artifacts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behaviors contribute to the
development and transmission of culture.
b. Define cultural diffusion.
c. Compare different ways in which cultural diffusion takes place.
6.1.06 Understand the influence of science and technology on the development of culture
a. Construct a time line of technological innovations and rate the importance of
b. Show through specific examples how science and technology have changed
people's perceptions of the social and natural world.
c. Describe examples in which values, beliefs, and attitudes have been influenced by
Performance Indicators State:
As documented through state assessment -
At Level 1, the student is able to
• 6.1.spi.1 recognize the basic components of culture (i.e., language, common
values, traditions, government, art, literature, lifestyles).
• 6.1.spi.2. identify the job characteristics of archaeologists, anthropologists,
geologists, and historians.
• 6.1.spi.3. recognize the world's major religions and their founders (i.e., Judaism,
Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed).
At Level 2, the student is able to
• 6.1.spi.4. recognize significant epics as historical sources (i.e., Iliad, the Odyssey,
• 6.1.spi.5. identify differences between various cultural groups (i.e., European,
Eurasian, Indian, Southeast Asian, Middle Eastern, African, Native American).
• 6.1.spi.6. recognize reasons that cultural groups develop or settle in specific
• 6.1.spi.7. identify how early writing forms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus
Valley influenced life (i.e., legal, religious, and culture).
At Level 3, the student is able to
• 6.1.spi.8. recognize how migration and cultural diffusion influenced the character
of world societies (i.e., spread of religions, empire building, exploration,
Performance Indicators Teacher:
As documented through teacher observation –
• 6.1.tpi.1. recognize the variety of cultures within a community by comparison.
• 6.1.tpi.2. make and sample foods from a cultural region.
• 6.1.tpi.3. write and decipher messages using various alphabets.
• 6.1.tpi.4. conduct an archaeological dig using replicated items from appropriate
• 6.1.tpi.5. describe how technological innovations affected culture and history
• 6.1.tpi.6. compare various forms of jewelry, art, music, and literature among
• 6.1.tpi.7. Read mythologies and/or oral histories from various cultural groups.
(e.g., Greek mythology, African folk tales, Chinese fables).
• 6.1.tpi.8. compare how different belief systems and/or religions confront morals
throughout historical periods.
• 6.1.tpi.9. participate in a three-group rotation with a barter market, cuneiform
writing, and map skill using reading for information worksheet about a society.
• 6.1.tpi.10. Construct examples of appropriate items from various cultures (e.g.
medieval castles, pyramids, clothing items, food).
• 6.1.tpi.11. analyze how communities kept track of and regarded the passage of
• 6.1.tpi.12. analyze the power of myth and heroes throughout historical times by
reading a community's literature.
• 6.1.tpi. 13. Create a piece of artwork based on a historical example such as a
Content Standard: 2.0
Globalization of the economy, the explosion of population growth, technological changes
and international competition compel students to understand, both personally and
globally, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Students will
examine and analyze economic concepts such as basic needs versus wants, using versus
saving money, and policy making versus decision making.
• 2.01 Understand fundamental economic concepts and their application to a variety
of economic systems.
• 2.02 Discuss economic connections, conflicts, and interdependence.
• 2.03 Understand the potential costs and benefits of individual economic choices.
6.2.01 Understand fundamental economic concepts and their application to a variety of
a. Explain the relationship of supply and demand in early World History.
b. Describe the change from hunter/gatherer economies to economies based on
animal and plant domestication.
c. Investigate the impact of trade on the economies of early civilizations.
6.2.02 Discuss economic connections, conflicts, and interdependence.
a. Define various types of economies and their methods of production and
b. Apply economic concepts to evaluate historic developments.
c. Explain the economic impact of improved communication and transportation.
d. Appraise the relationship among scarcity of resources, economic development,
and international conflict.
6.2.03 Understand the potential costs and benefits of individual economic choices.
a. Differentiate between needs and wants.
b. Analyze how supply and demand, and change in technologies impact the cost for
goods and services.
c. Evaluate the relationship between creditors and debtors.
• 6.2.spi.1. recognize an example of a barter economy.
• 6.2.spi.2. identify major trade routes (i.e., silk roads, Persian trade routes, African
trade routes, Mediterranean trade routes, ocean routes).
• 6.2.spi.3. identify disadvantages and advantages of nomadic and early farming
lifestyles (i.e., shelter, food supply, and, domestication of plants and animals).
• 6.2.spi.4. recognize the importance of economic systems in the development of
early civilizations around rivers (i.e., Tigris and Euphrates, Huang He, Nile,
• 6.2.spi.5. recognize the importance of trade in later civilizations (i.e.,
Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, India, European).
• 6.2.spi.6. analyze how basic economic ideas influenced world events (i.e., supply
and demand leads to exploration and colonization).
• 6.2.tpi.1. trace the path of an produced item. (e.g. clothing, consumer goods,
foods) to the classroom.
• 6.2.tpi.2. discuss how a society's economics are affected by the geography of the
• 6.2.tpi.3. research different job opportunities found throughout historical periods.
• 6.2.tpi.4. create a comparison chart between nomadic life and farming life.
• 6.2.tpi.5. create a spice chart detailing origination, pricing and uses of spices in
present day and historical foods.
• 6.2.tpi.6. practice a variety of graphs to illustrate historical knowledge.
• 6.2.tpi.7. predict the items and their economic cost of an average household in
different geographic areas throughout historical time periods.
• 6.2.tpi.8. write a historical travel brochure about a community listing different
economic costs for items found within the community.
• 6.2.tpi.9. explore the different economic crisis and conflicts that confront a
• 6.2.tpi.10. judge the relative economic and psychological costs for a community
when it commits to a grand scale project.
Content Standard: 3.0
Geography enables the students to see, understand and appreciate the web of
relationships among people, places, and environments. Students will use the knowledge,
skills, and understanding of concepts within the six essential elements of geography:
world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems,
environment and society, and the uses of geography.
• 3.01 Understand the characteristics and uses of maps.
• 3.02 Know the location of places and geographic features, both physical and
• 3.03 Understand the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth’s
• 3.04 Understand the physical and human characteristics of place.
6.3.01 Understand the characteristics and uses of maps.
a. Use the basic elements of maps and mapping.
b. Identify the locations of certain physical and human features and events on maps
6.3.02 Know the location of places and geographic features, both physical and human.
a. Identify the location of earth's major landforms such as continents, islands, and
mountain ranges, and major bodies of water such as the oceans, seas, rivers, and
b. Describe the location of major physical characteristics such as landforms, climate,
soils, water, features, vegetation, resources, and animal life, and human
characteristics such as language groups, religions, political systems, economic
systems, and population centers in the world.
c. Explain how and why the location of geographic features both physical and
human in the world change over time and space.
6.3.03 Understand the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface.
a. Identify concepts that define and describe spatial organization such as location,
distance, direction, scale, movement and region.
b. Explain how changing technology such as transportation and communication
technology affect spatial relationships.
6.3.04 Understand the physical and human characteristics of place.
a. Describe how physical and human processes shape the characteristics of a place.
b. Explain how technology shapes the physical and human characteristics of places.
c. Explain why places have specific physical and human characteristics in different
parts of the world.
• 6.3.spi.1 identify the basic components of a world map (i.e., compass rose, map
key, scale, latitude and longitude lines, continents, oceans).
• 6.3.spi.2 identify basic geographic forms (i.e., rivers, lakes, bays, oceans,
mountains, plateaus, deserts, plains, coastal plains).
• 6.3.spi.3. identify the location of early civilizations on a map (i.e. Mesopotamian,
Egyptian, Ancient Chinese, Indian.).
• 6.3.spi.4 identify geographic reasons for the location of population centers prior to
1500 (i.e. coastal plains, deserts, mountains, river valleys).
• 6.3.spi.5. use a variety of maps to understand geographic and historical
information (i.e., political maps, resource maps, product maps, physical maps,
climate maps, vegetation maps).
• 6.3.spi.6. interpret a graph that illustrates a major trend in world history (i.e.
population growth, economic development, governance land areas, growth of
• 6.3.tpi.1. construct a map of major trade routes and/or geographic forms (e.g.,
draw map, salt-map, collage map).
• 6.3.tpi.2. research various methods of farming exhibited by various communities.
• 6.3.tpi.3. determine how the environment affected the development of a
• 6.3.tpi.4. discuss the environment, physical geography, plant and animal life of
communities throughout historical time periods.
• 6.3.tpi.5. investigate the impact of a local river system on the development of the
local community. Compare these consequences to those of an earlier river-based
• 6.3.tpi.6. analyze different types of housing utilized by indigenous peoples
throughout time. Contrast housing changes after a community interacts with
others from a different community.
• 6.3.tpi.7. create maps of early civilizations. Layer the maps to show how the
civilization responded to the geography.
• 6.3.tpi.8. decide where to settle a hypothetical community on a geographic map.
• 6.3.tpi.9. debate the role of geography in warfare throughout historical time
• 6.3.tpi.10. write a fictional account describing a historical community's physical
geography choosing from a contemporary community that history changed
dramatically through human or natural consequences (e.g., countryside vs.
urbanization, desertification, irrigation).
• 6.3.tpi.11 examine the role of transportation networks in transferring of goods and
ideas (e.g., Silk Road, Roman road building).
Governance and Civics
Content Standard: 4.0
Governance establishes structures of power and authority in order to provide order and
stability. Civic efficacy requires understanding rights and responsibilities, ethical
behavior, and the role of citizens within their community, nation, and world.
• 4.01 Explain the development of a people’s need to belong and organize into a
system of governance.
• 4.02 Describe the purposes and structure of governments.
• 4.03 Identify how cooperation and conflict among people influence the division
and control resources, rights, and privileges.
6.4.01 Explain the development of a people's need to belong and organize into a system
a. Identify informal and formal forms of governance.
b. Describe the purpose of governance and how its powers are acquired, used and
c. Analyze the necessity of establishing and enforcing the rule of law.
d. Originate models of lower to higher forms of social and political orders.
6.4.02 Describe the purposes and structure of governments.
a. Identify written laws handed down from ancient civilizations.
b. Explore the development of citizenship and government in ancient civilizations.
c. Explain and apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice and influence to
the examination of persistent issues and social problems.
d. Recognize the relationship between a place's physical, political, and cultural
characteristics and the type of government that emerges in that place.
6.4.03 Identify how cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and
control resources, rights, and privileges.
a. Identify natural resources that are necessary to the survival of a civilization.
b. Differentiate between rights and privileges of the individual.
c. Consider how cooperation and conflict affects the dissemination of resources,
rights and privileges.
• 6.4.spi.1 recognize types of government (i.e. formal/informal, monarchy,
direct/indirect democracy, republics, theocracy).
• 6.4.spi.2. recognize the steps that give rise to complex governmental
organizations (i.e., nomadic, farming, village, city, city-states, states).
• 6.4.spi.3. identify the development of written laws (i.e., Hammurabi’s Code,
Justinian Code, Magna Carta).
• 6.4.spi.4. recognize the roles assigned to individuals in various societies (i.e.,
caste systems, feudal systems, city-state systems, class cystems).
• 6.4.spi.5. compare and contrast the lives of individual citizens in various
governmental organizations (i.e. monarchial systems, feudal systems, caste
systems, democratic systems-Greek).
• 6.4.tpi.1. create a comparison chart for several types of government including
monarchy, formal/informal, direct/indirect democracy, republics, and theocracy.
• 6.4.tpi.2. role-play various types of government with students playing the
government officials, citizens, and other members of the society.
• 6.4.tpi.3. list advantages and disadvantages to varying forms of governance.
• 6.4.tpi.4. write a set of laws for the classroom. Compare these laws to various
historical codes. (e.g. Hammurabi's Code, Ten Commandments).
• 6.4.tpi.5. discuss reasons why individuals combine to form governments.
• 6.4.tpi.6. recognize how warfare affects a community's governance system.
• 6.4.tpi.7. discover the importance of leadership in a governance system.
• 6.4.tpi.8. write a series of short fictional biographies of individuals living at
various levels of society, (e.g. caste system, feudal system).
• 6.4.tpi.9. explain how wealth affects a community's governance system.
• 6.4.tpi.10. debate the influence of three stages of a governance cycle on a
community (i.e., beginnings, status quo, and decline).
Content Standard: 5.0
History involves people, events, and issues. Students will evaluate evidence to develop
comparative and causal analyses, and to interpret primary sources. They will construct
sound historical arguments and perspectives on which informed decisions in
contemporary life can be based.
World History Standards Era 1: The Beginnings of Human Society
• 5.01 Recognize the importance of fire, weapons, and tools to early cultures and
• 5.02 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and
• 5.03 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
World History Standards Era 2: Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral
Peoples (4000-1000 BCE)
• 5.04 Recognize the importance of agriculture, evolution of writing, education,
law, and trade in the development of early civilizations.
• 5.05 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and
• 5.06 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
World History Standards Era 3: Classical Traditions, Major Religions, and Giant
Empires (1000 BCE-300 AD)
• 5.07 Recognize the influence of major religions between both ancient eastern and
• 5.08 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present, and
• 5.09 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
• 5.10 Understand the rise and decline of ancient civilizations.
World History Standards Era 4: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter
• 5.11 Understand feudalism and the rise of the Christian church as dominant
factors in Medieval Europe.
• 5.12 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and
• 5.13 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
• 5.14 Understand the achievements of great African and Asian empires.
World History Standards Era 5: The Emergence of Europe (1200-1500AD)
• 5.15 Appreciate the shift in institutions resulting as cultures moved from church
dominated societies to an emphasis on science, philosophy, and art.
• 5.16 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and
• 5.17 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
6.5.01 Recognize the importance of fire, weapons, and tools to early cultures and
a. List ancient weapons and tools.
b. Understand the role of the environment in terms of influencing the development
of weapons, and tools.
c. Explain the role of agriculture in early settled communities.
d. Recognize the immediate and long term impacts and influences of early
agricultural communities such as Southwest Asia and the African Nile Valley.
6.5.02 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.
a. Describe the biological processes that shaped the earliest human communities.
b. Identify the characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental
regions in Africa versus the Americas.
c. Explain how different early human communities expressed their beliefs.
6.5.03 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
a. Explain how geologists, archaeologists, and anthropologists study early human
b. Identify scientific evidence regarding early human settlements in Africa.
6.5.04 Recognize the importance of agriculture, evolution of writing, education, law, and
trade in the development of early civilizations.
a. Describe the characteristics of writing in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus
valley and how their written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural
b. Compare and contrast the Mycenaean Greek development of agriculture, writing,
education, law and trade with another society.
c. Explain how the development of different types of tools, laws, and religion
influenced early Chinese civilization.
6.5.05 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.
a. Compare and contrast how the economic, political, cultural, and environmental
factors among the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Indus River Valley, China, and
Mesopotamia shaped their histories.
b. Explain the decline of the Indus Valley civilization.
c. Identify significant individuals and events in Egyptian civilization.
d. Describe the characteristics of Aryan society.
6.5.06 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
a. Describe what archaeological evidence reveals about Chinese history during the
b. Identify early forms of writing, law, and trade i.e. cuneiform, hieroglyphics,
barter, Code of Hammurabi, and the Ten Commandments.
6.5.07 Recognize the influence of major religions between both ancient eastern and
a. Illustrate the placement of major religions on the earth's surface.
b. Compare and contrast elements of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
c. Identify the causes and spread of Christianity.
d. Explain the origins of Buddhism and fundamental Buddhist beliefs.
6.5.08 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present, and future.
a. Explain the patterns of Phoenician political organization, culture, and trade in the
b. Describe the development of Greek city-states and their political and social
c. Identify the characteristics of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires.
d. Explain the impact and achievements of the Hellenistic period on art,
mathematics, science, philosophy, and political thought.
e. Understand the origins and social framework of Roman society.
f. Identify fundamental social, political, and cultural characteristics of Chinese
society under early imperial dynasties.
6.5.09 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
a. Compare geographical and architectural features of Egypt.
b. Identify major cultural elements of Greek society such as sculpture, architecture,
c. Explore the role of art, literature, and mythology in Greek society by analyzing
d. Explain the political, commercial and cultural uses of Latin and Greek as
universal languages of the Roman Empire.
6.5.10 Understand the rise and decline of ancient civilizations.
a. Construct time lines to show sequences of important dates and events.
b. Identify cause and effect of events leading to the rise and decline of civilizations.
c. Describe how the rise and decline of military power, state bureaucracy, legal
codes, belief systems, written languages, and communications and trade networks
6.5.11 Understand feudalism and the rise of the Christian church a dominant factor in
a. Identify the spread of Christian belief in Europe.
b. Diagram the social structure of medieval society.
c. Explain the significance of Norse migrations and invasions.
d. Describe social class and gender roles in Medieval Europe.
6.5.12 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.
a. Understand the significant features of Mayan and Andean civilization as in their
location of cities, road systems, sea routes, status of elite women and men, art,
b. Recognize the importance of maritime and overland trade routes linking regions
of Afro-Eurasian societies.
6.5.13 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
a. List the major achievements in technology, astronomy, and medicine in the Gupta
b. Identify monastic examples of preserving Greco-Roman and early Christian
c. Read an example of African oral history for its historical importance.
6.5.14 Understand the achievements of great African and Asian empires.
a. Identify the spread of Islamic belief in Asia and Africa.
b. Explain how the influence of Islamic ideas and practices influenced culture and
c. Describe the characteristics of and development of great African and Asian
d. Identify the impact of Chinese society on surrounding cultures in terms of
assimilation of ideas and political autonomy.
6.5.15 Appreciate the shift in institutions from a church dominated society to the rise of
science, philosophy, and art.
a. Recognize the developments of science, philosophy, and art in the 14th and 15th
b. Understand the significant developments of medieval English in legal and
constitutional practices and how this shaped the development of European
c. Recognize the origins and the economic, social, and political impact of the plague
upon Eurasian societies.
d. Judge the significance of the Reformation on the development of Europe.
6.5.16 Understand the place of historical events in the context of past, present and future.
a. Compare and contrast feudalism and manoralism.
b. Explain the cultural characteristics of Islamic society such as a common language,
religious text, and society and how this led to cohesiveness across regions.
c. Identify features of trade routes in Asia, Europe, and Africa.
d. Describe the roles and motivations of squires, saints, and soldiers in Christian
e. Describe the economic, social, and religious features of West Africa.
6.5.17 Identify how to use historical information acquired from a variety of sources.
a. Identify aspects of the architecture of Medieval Europe and how some elements
may still be seen in local and modern architecture.
b. Compare and contrast art, architecture, and education in medieval Christian and
Spanish Muslim society.
c. Rate the importance of foreign sources in recording the history in areas of Mongol
domination as in the travels of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta.
• 6.5.spi.1 read a timeline and order events of the past between prehistory and the
• 6.5.spi.2. recognize the types of early communities (i.e., nomadic, fishing,
• 6.5.spi.3. identify types of artifacts by pictorial representation (i.e., Egyptian,
Roman, Greek, Chinese, Native American, Medieval, and Renaissance).
• 6.5.spi.4. recognize the forms of early world writing (i.e., cuneiform and
Egyptian/Native American Hieroglyphics).
• 6.5.spi.5. identify major technological advances (i.e., tools, wheel, irrigation, river
dikes, development of farming, advances in weaponry, written language, and
• 6.5.spi.6. recognize the designations for time dating (i.e., BCE, AD, centuries,
decades, prehistoric, historic.)
• 6.5.spi.7. recognize major historical time periods (i.e., Early Civilizations,
Classical Period, Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance).
• 6.5.spi.8. identify conclusions about early world historical events using primary
and secondary sources.
• 6.5.spi.9. recognize and order major historical events on a timeline between the
Middle Ages and Renaissance.
• 6.5.spi.10. identify the development of written and spoken languages (i.e., Roman
alphabet, Latin word origins, Romance Languages).
• 6.5.spi.11. identify characteristics including economy, social relations, religion,
and political authority of various societies (i.e., Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Greek
City-States, Roman Empire, Indian, Medieval).
• 6.5.spi.12. recognize the possible causes of change in civilizations (i.e.,
environmental change, political collapse, new ideas, warfare, overpopulation,
unreliable food sources, diseases).
• 6.5.spi.13. identify the impact of advances in technology on history (i.e.
agricultural revolution, Renaissance scientists, exploration during the 1400s).
• 6.5.spi.14. recognize how the Renaissance changes the nature of society (i.e., shift
from religious domination to science, philosophy, art).
• 6.5.spi.15. evaluate to what extent civilizations build on the accomplishments of
• 6.5.spi.16. compare and contrast the historical development of the Western,
Eastern, and African cultures.
• 6.5.spi.17. recognize the significant mythologies of the Sumerians, Egyptian,
Greeks, and Romans.
• 6.5.tpi.1. create a self-time line from birth to present to reinforce the purposes and
use of timelines.
• 6.5.tpi.2. create an example of an artifact that could be found by an archaeologist
today (e.g., pottery shard, eating utensils, plaster bones).
• 6.5.tpi.3. make a facsimile Rosetta Stone (e.g., compare English, a student created
language, and cuneiform or hieroglyphics).
• 6.5.tpi.3. study examples of primary and secondary sources about the same event.
• 6.5.tpi.4. create a timeline with various images depicting historical events.
• 6.5.tpi.5. attend a historical festival. (e.g., Renaissance festival).
• 6.5.tpi.6. read excerpts from historical documents. (e.g., Odyssey, Illiad).
• 6.5.tpi.7. write a short epic describing the events of the students life.
• 6.5.tpi.8. chart the names of the various gods from Greek and Roman mythologies
to research which modern day words come from the Greek or Roman
• 6.5.tpi.9. create a chart to compare societies. (e.g., Athens v. Sparta).
• 6.5.tpi.10. analyze the ever-changing role of transportation and subsequent effects
• 6.5.tpi.11 attend a field trip pertaining to an early world history topic.
Individuals, Groups, and Interactions
Content Standard: 6.0
Personal development and identity are shaped by factors including culture, groups, and
institutions. Central to this development are exploration, identification, and analysis of
how individuals and groups work independently and cooperatively.
• 6.01 Understand the impact of individual and group decisions on citizens and
• 6.02 Understand how groups can impact change at world levels.
6.6.01 Understand the impact of individual and group decisions on citizens and
a. Recognize that individuals can belong to groups but still have their own identity.
b. Relate personal changes to social, cultural, and historical contexts.
c. Describe personal connections to place, as associated with community, nation and
d. Describe ways regional, ethnic, and national cultures influence individuals' daily
6.6.02 Understand how groups can impact change at world levels.
a. Identify and describe ways family, groups, and community influence the
individual's daily life and personal choices.
b. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts such as role, status, and social class in
describing the interactions of individuals and social groups.
c. Analyze group and institutional influences on people, events, and elements of
• 6.6.spi.1 identify examples of groups impacting world history (i.e., Muslims,
Christians, Mongolians, Vikings, slave traders, explorers, merchants/traders,
• 6.6.spi.2. recognize the impact of individuals on world history (i.e., Charlemagne,
Joan of Arc, William the Conqueror, Ramses II, Julius Caesar, Socrates, Aristotle,
Marco Polo, Alexander the Great, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Martin
Luther, and Johannes Gutenberg).
• 6.6.spi.3. describe the ways in which individuals can change groups (i.e., Martin
Luther – Christian church, William of Normandy – English Monarchy, Joan of
Arc – Hundred Years War, Buddha – Chinese Culture).
• 6.6.tpi.1. go to an archaeological dig in Tennessee (e.g., Chucaloosa, the
Hermitage, Rocky Mount).
• 6.6.tpi.2. present information on the significance of individuals from world
history. (e.g., costuming, written report, oral report, diorama).
• 6.6.tpi.3. demonstrate model behavior when a guest speaker attends the
• 6.6.tpi.4. compare an average person's life within a community with that of a
historically significant person throughout historical time periods.
• 6.6.tpi.5. explore the importance of scientific advancements to the development of
• 6.6.tpi.6. experience a storyteller's rendition of a historical event.
• 6.6.tpi.7. assume the role of a historical person to debate an issue within the
• 6.6.tpi.7. analyze differing communities' perception of beauty.
• 6.6.tpi.8. debate how human beings adopted new skills throughout time in order to
predict the future.
• 6.6.tpi.8. analyze a society in history to compare it to its status today
Perfect! I will have this ready for you tomorrow.
I will have it ready for you tomorrow afternoon or early evening. :-)
Hi there. I am on track to have this ready for you by 8pm tonight. :-)
Hi there. Here you go: https://app.box.com/s/p6ef3l7nk6mcuk42u2pv Please let me know if you have any questions!
Hi , Everything looks great!!! Thank you so much for all your help.