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I'm Lucy, and I'd be happy to answer your questions today. I'm sorry to hear that this happened.
The statute of limitations in Colorado for breach of contract is three years. If you actually did owe late fees two years ago when you closed your account, they could still collect it. However, they have the burden of proving that you owed the money, that you were late, and when these fees accrued. You have a right under the Fair Debt Collections Practices Act to demand verification of the debt. They also need to prove that the original contract with the day care company allows for late fees - otherwise, they're not entitled to anything.
If they're charging you late fees on a $0 balance, then no, that's not collectible because you didn't owe anything.
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Any late payments before June 16, 2014 cannot be the subject of late fees no matter what. But if they tried to sue, you could also defend on the basis of estoppel. The original company never tried to charge late fees. Because of that, you had later payments that were late. Then they told you that you had a zero balance, and you relied upon that when closing your account with them.
Do you have any other questions about this?