It's not necessarily a case you can make against the Woodlands. It depends on what they check for when the approve a building. Some municipalities only check to approve the basic building plans, making sure it is up to code, meets the restrictions, etc. Others check for the elevation and drainage systems as well.
If the Woodlands checks for drainage issues and just missed this issue on yours, then they would be liable as would the owners of the property. If any owners made changes which affected drainage follow the approval of the plans then you couldn't hold the city liable for that, only the owner.
If the city doesn't check at all for the drainage when approving plans, then you likely won't be able to hold them liable either. First because of the Texas Tort Claims Act which minimizes in what cases governmental entities are liable and then also because there is no automatic duty on a governmental entity to check for drainage. If they take on that responsibility, then they have a duty to do it correctly but if they don't take on the issue at alt, then there is no duty.
You can certainly try and sue them saying they should have that duty, but what is going to happen is they are going to file a Motion to Dismiss fairly early on based on the Texas Tort Claims Act and the court is going to grant it.
Regardless, you can still pursue the owners of the other lots if, and only if, their building or changing their land caused the drainage to begin running onto your property. If it ran there the entire time then there is nothing you can do other than, perhaps, a suit against the seller.
If you are going to sue The Woodlands then you are required to give them notice of intent to sue within 180 days after the damage began. If you miss the 180 day required notice then you cannot bring suit as the court will have lost jurisdiction. That notice is required by the Texas Tort Claims Act and there is a fairly good article on the issue at http://causeofactionelements.blogspot.com/2011/12/ttca-notice-of-claim-requirement-for.html
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