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Unfortunately this happens frequently when couples split and the courts have adopted a fairly uniform approach.. Pets are considered personal property, just like a TV, a car, or a couch, under the law. However judges recognize the strong bonds people have with their pets so they treat them more like children and will set up actual visitation schedules where one person has the pet for a certain amount of time and then the other person.
But if your partner has unilaterally decided to end any voluntary sharing of custody, then your recourse is to file suit against partner for "conversion" which is the unlawful keeping of another's property and "replevin" which is its return.
This is something that small claims court handles and you don't need an attorney to file suit. The clerks have the summons and complaint forms you need to file to start the case. Then they will help you get the sheriff to serve partner and you then just come to court and tell your story.