I am very sorry to hear this;
Medical malpractice is a very complicated legal issue, and as such it is generally best to hire an attorney that specializes in medical malpractice (as opposed to a general personal injury attorney). Such an attorney will generally have a network of doctors and expert witnesses they work with to help establish a case.
Basically medical malpractice is premised on the theories of negligence.
Negligence is defined as a failure to perform with the level of care that someone of ordinary prudence would have exercised under the same circumstances. The behavior usually consists of actions, but may consist of omissions when there is some duty to act. This cause of action has 5 elements: the existence of a legal duty to exercise reasonable care; a failure to exercise reasonable care; harm caused by the negligent conduct; physical harm of actual damages; and proximate cause (reasonably foreseeable damages). If there is physical injury, the court will generally allow for actual damages (ie medical costs, caretaking costs for future needs), emotional pain and suffering (ie loss of quality of life, for example), and even punitive damages (designed to deter others from similar negligence).
The fact that the patient may have had Alzheimer's before does not absolve the practitioner of liability; rather any exacerbation to the condition resulting from the negligent act can result in damages. In personal injury cases, there is the "Vosburg Rule" which basically states that the plaintiff is taken in the condition s/he is in so that prior preexisting conditions do not operate as a bar to recovery.
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Information provided is for educational purposes only. Consultation with a personal attorney is always recommended so your particular facts may be considered. Thank you and take care.