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If a person is arrested, then the police can search the arrestee's person, as specified under the Search Incident to Lawful Arrest doctrine, by patting down in a search for weapons, drugs or other incriminating evidence. They can also seize a cellphone (or tablet or laptop) and hold onto that device as part of the arrest, until the DA conducts their investigation and decides on charges. However, the police cannot access that cellphone and the data on it, without obtaining a search warrant after the arrest.
It doesn't matter whether the phone is protected by a passcode or lock screen.
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