Thank you for your question. I look forward to working with you to provide you the information you are seeking for educational purposes only.
Under HIPAA, there is no private right to take action. HIPAA prevents disclosure of personal health information to anyone, including law enforcement, without a valid subpoena
or to another medical professional for valid medical treatment purposes. Under HIPAA if there was a violation, the recourse you have is you must file a complaint with the US Department of Health and Human Services, which is the sole entity under HIPAA that has enforcement authority under HIPAA.
If the police obtained the evidence illegally from the doctor in violation of HIPAA, then the Court held in State v. Jewell, No. 10 - 11 - 00166 - CR (TX 10th App 2010), then that evidence should be deemed inadmissible against you.
Furthermore, under the state confidentiality
of medical record law, http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/HS/htm/HS.181.htm, you have a right to file a civil suit against the doctor for breach of his duty of confidentiality (which you do not have under HIPAA) and you can sue for all the money damages you suffered, including attorney's fees incurred in fighting any criminal charges and also the emotional harm he caused you to suffer through this.